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Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

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Chemistry II

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
(a) Draw the structures of all isomeric alcohols of molecular formula C5H12O and give their IUPAC names.
(b) Classify the isomers of alcohols in the above part of question as primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols.   

(a) Eight isomeric alcohols are possible:

b)  Primary alcohol: pentan-1-ol; methylbutan-1-ol; 3-methyl-1-ol; 2,2Dimethylpropan-1-ol.

Secondary alcohol: Pentan-2-ol; 3-methylbutan-2-ol; pentan-3-ol

Tertiary alcohol: 2-methylbutan-2-ol


Write the mechanism of hydration of ethene to yield ethanol.

The mechanism  of the reaction involves the following three step:

Step 1: Proptonation of ethene to form carbocation by electrophilic attack of H3O+.

Step 2: Nucleophilic attack of water on carbocation.

Step 3: Deprotonation to form an ethanol.


Write the equations involved in the following reactions:
(i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction        
(ii) Kolbe’s reaction.

(i) Reimer-Tiemann reaction:

(ii) Kolbe’s reaction:


Give structures of the products you would expect when each of the following alcohol reacts with,
(a) HCl—ZnCl2 (b) HBr and (c) SOCl2.
(i)  Butan-1-ol      (ii) 2-Methyl butan-2-ol.

(HCl—ZnCl2) is lucas reagent, lucas reagent react with alcohol however it does not react with primary alcohol but readily gives turbidity with tertiary alcohols.

a) Reaction with (HCl—ZnCl2):

Butan-1-ol is primary alcohol thus no reaction occur.
where as 2-methyl butan-2-ol is tertiary alcohol, it forms 2-chloro-2-methylbutane.

b) Reaction with HBr:

c) Reaction with SOCl2:


Give the equations of reaction for the preparation of phenol from cumene.

Cumene is oxidised into cumene hydro peroxide by air at high pressure which on decomposition by aqueous acid gives phenol and acetone.

The cumene required in the above reaction is prepared from benzene and propene by Friedel-crafts reaction.