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Class 10 Class 12

Differentiate between the major port and minor port with examples.

Major Port

Minor Port

1. There are about 12 major ports in India.

2. They handle international trade.

3. They handle traffic of ten lakh metric tonnes per year.

4. They are controlled and managed by port trusts and central government.

5. These regulate foreign trade at international level.

6. Example : Mumbai, Chennai, Kochi.

1. There are over 226 minor ports.

2. They promotes coastal trade along with fishing.

3. They handle traffic less than ten lakh metric tonnes every year.

4. They are controlled and managed by state government.

5. These manages national or interstate trade and promote fishing.

6. Example : Porbandar.


Describe the major changes that have occurred in the commodity composition of India's imports during the period between 1960–2001 with examples.

India's foreign trade has undergone a great change during last 40 years. These are described below:

Positive change:

1. Petroleum and Petroleum Products:

In 1960-61 petroleum and its products accounted for 6.2% of total imports. This percentage rose to 28.7% in 2002-03. Reasons was price rise in petroleum and its products.

2. Chemicals and fertilizers : The import of chemicals also rose from 3.5% in 1961 to 6.9% in 2003. The import was necessary for increasing industrial output.

 Negative change :

(i) Capital goods : Import of machineries, electrical machines, tools and equipments have come down in quantitative terms.

(ii) Food and allied products : The share in the import of these products has come down from 19.1% in 1960-61 to 4.6% in 2002-03.

(iii) Clothes and iron and steel : India is no longer imports clothes instead has become a net exporter on a large scale. The same is the story with iron and steel.

(iv) Raw material : Import of minerals, crude rubber, wood timber, ferrous minerals have also come down. The main reason for this reduction is the increase in the domestic production of these minerals.

Describe the three significant port of Tamil Nadu.

The significant Ports of Tamil Nadu are described below:

(i) Chennai Port is one of the oldest ports on the eastern coast. It is an artificial harbour built in 1859. It is not much suitable for large ships because of the shallow waters near the coast. Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry are its hinterland.

(ii) Ennore, a newly developed port in Tamil Nadu, has been constructed 25 km north of Chennai to relieve the pressure at Chennai port.

(iii) Tuticorin Port was also developed to relieve the pressure of Chennai port. It deals with a variety of cargo including coal, salt, food grains, edible oils, sugar, chemicals and petroleum products.

Describe the salience of the Kolkata port.

Kolkata Port:

(i) It is located on the Hugli river, 128 km inland from the Bay of Bengal. Like the Mumbai port, this port was also developed by the British.

(ii) Kolkata had the initial advantage of being the capital of British India. The port has lost its significance considerably on account of the diversion of exports to the other ports such as Vishakhapatnam, Paradwip and its satellite port, Haldia.

(iii) Kolkata port is also confronted with the problem of silt accumulation in the Hugli river which provides a link to the sea.

(iv) Its hinterland covers U.P., Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Sikkim and the north-eastern states.

(v) Apart from this, it also extends ports facilities to our neighbouring land-locked countries such as Nepal and Bhutan.


Discuss any two Ports of Maharastra. 

The two ports are :

(i) Mumbai: It is a natural harbour and the biggest port of the country. The port is situated closer to the general routes from the countries of Middle East, Mediterranean countries, North Africa, North America and Europe where the major share of country’s overseas trade is carried out. The port is 20 km long and 6-10 km wide with 54 berths and has the country’s largest oil terminal. M.P., Maharashtra, Gujarat, U.P. and parts of Rajasthan constitute the main hinterlands of Mumbai ports.

(ii) Jawaharlal Nehru PortThis is at Nhava Sheva was developed as a satellite port to relieve the pressure at the Mumbai port. It is the largest container port in India.