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Class 10 Class 12

Mention with reasons principal rice producing states.

The principal rice producing states are:

(i)West Bengal (ii)Uttar Pradesh (iii)Orissa

(iv)Andhra Pradesh (v)Bihar  (vi)Chattisgarh

(vii)Punjab (viii)Tamil Nadu. 


(i)In West Bengal climate is favourable for the cultivation of rice.

(ii)Uttar Pradesh : It has fertile soils, favourable climate and irrigation facilities to grow two to three crops.

(iii)In Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Tamil Nadu 90% of rice cropped area is irrigated.

(iv)In Orissa and Chhattisgarh adequate rainfall and irrigation facilities due to Hira Kund Project contribute to high production and large cropped area.

Examine the different cropping seasons existed in India.

There are three distinct crop seasons in the northern and interior parts of country, namely kharif, rabi and zaid.

(i)The kharif season largely coincides with Southwest Monsoon under which the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar,
bajra and tur is possible.

(ii)The rabi season begins with the onset of winter in October-November and ends in March-April. The low temperature conditions during this season facilitate the cultivation of temperate and subtropical crops such as wheat, gram and mustard.

(iii)Zaid is a short duration summer cropping season beginning after harvesting of rabi crops. The cultivation of watermelons, cucumbers, vegetables and fodder crops during this season is done on irrigated lands.

(iv)However, this type of distinction in the cropping season does not exist in southern parts of the country. Here, the temperature is high enough to grow tropical crops during any period in the year provided the soil moisture is available.

(v)Therefore, in this region same crops can be grown thrice in an agricultural year provided there is sufficient soil moisture.

Describe Pulse as significant foodgrain in India.


(i)Pulses are a very important ingredient of vegetarian food as these are rich sources of proteins. These are legume crops which increase the natural fertility of soils through nitrogen fixation.

(ii)India is a leading producer of pulses and accounts for about one-fifth of the total production of pulses in the world.

(iii)The cultivation of pulses in the country is largely concentrated in the drylands of Deccan and central plateaus and northwestern parts of the country.

(iv)Pulses occupy about 11 per cent of the total cropped area in the country. Gram and tur are the main pulses cultivated in India.

(v)Being the rainfed crops of drylands, the yields of pulses are low and fluctuate from year to year. 

Write a brief note on rapeseed and mustard.

Rapeseed and Mustard:

(i)Rapeseed and mustard comprise several oilseeds as rai, sarson, toria and taramira.

(ii)These are subtropical crops cultivated during rabi season in north-western and central parts of India.

(iii)These are frost sensitive crops and their yields fluctuate from year to year. But with the expansion of irrigation and improvement in seed technology, their yields have improved and stabilised to some extent.

(iv)About two-third of the cultivated area under these crops is irrigated. These oilseeds together occupy only 2.5 per cent of total cropped area in the country.

(v)Rajasthan contributes about one-third production while other leading producers are Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. Yields of these crops are comparatively high in Haryana and Rajasthan.


Explain the cultivation of rice in India.

The cultivation of rice in India is explained below:

(i)Though, it is considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas, it has about 3,000 varieties which are grown in different agro-climatic regions. These are successfully grown from sea level to about 2,000 m altitude and from humid areas in eastern India to dry but irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, western U.P. and northern Rajasthan.

(ii)In southern states and West Bengal the climatic conditions allow the cultivation of two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year. In West Bengal farmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus’, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’. But in Himalayas and northwestern parts of the country, it is grown as a kharif crop during southwest Monsoon season.

(iii)About one-fourth of the total cropped area in the country is under rice cultivation. West Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are five leading rice producing states in the country.

(iv)Rice cultivation in the irrigated areas of Punjab and Haryana was introduced in 1970s following the Green Revolution.

(v)Genetically improved varieties of seed, relatively high usage of fertilisers and pesticides and lower levels of susceptibility of the crop to pests due to dry climatic conditions are responsible for higher yield of rice in this region.