Examine the different cropping seasons existed in India.
Mention with reasons principal rice producing states.
The principal rice producing states are:
(i)West Bengal (ii)Uttar Pradesh (iii)Orissa
(iv)Andhra Pradesh (v)Bihar (vi)Chattisgarh
(vii)Punjab (viii)Tamil Nadu.
Write a brief note on rapeseed and mustard.
Rapeseed and Mustard:
(i)Rapeseed and mustard comprise several oilseeds as rai, sarson, toria and taramira.
(ii)These are subtropical crops cultivated during rabi season in north-western and central parts of India.
(iii)These are frost sensitive crops and their yields fluctuate from year to year. But with the expansion of irrigation and improvement in seed technology, their yields have improved and stabilised to some extent.
(iv)About two-third of the cultivated area under these crops is irrigated. These oilseeds together occupy only 2.5 per cent of total cropped area in the country.
(v)Rajasthan contributes about one-third production while other leading producers are Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh. Yields of these crops are comparatively high in Haryana and Rajasthan.
Explain the cultivation of rice in India.
The cultivation of rice in India is explained below:
(i)Though, it is considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas, it has about 3,000 varieties which are grown in different agro-climatic regions. These are successfully grown from sea level to about 2,000 m altitude and from humid areas in eastern India to dry but irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, western U.P. and northern Rajasthan.
(ii)In southern states and West Bengal the climatic conditions allow the cultivation of two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year. In West Bengal farmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus’, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’. But in Himalayas and northwestern parts of the country, it is grown as a kharif crop during southwest Monsoon season.
(iii)About one-fourth of the total cropped area in the country is under rice cultivation. West Bengal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are five leading rice producing states in the country.
(iv)Rice cultivation in the irrigated areas of Punjab and Haryana was introduced in 1970s following the Green Revolution.
(v)Genetically improved varieties of seed, relatively high usage of fertilisers and pesticides and lower levels of susceptibility of the crop to pests due to dry climatic conditions are responsible for higher yield of rice in this region.
Describe Pulse as significant foodgrain in India.