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Class 10 Class 12

Write any three advantages of hydro - power.

Three advantages of hydro power are as follows :

(i) It is an inexhaustible source of energy.

(ii) It is pollution free.

(iii) It is a cheaper source of energy.



Explain the distribution of coal in India.

Coal occurs in rock sequences mainly of two geological ages, namely Gondwana and tertiary deposits.

(i) About 80 per cent of the coal deposits in India is of bituminous type and is of non-coking grade. The most important Gondwana coal fields of India are located in Damodar Valley They lie in Jharkhand-Bengal coal belt and the important coal fields in this region are Raniganj, Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih, Karanpura. Jharia is the largest coal field followed by Raniganj. The other river valleys associated with coal are Godavari, Mahanadi and Sone.

(ii) The most important coal mining centres are Singrauli in Madhya Pradesh (part of Singrauli coal field lies in Uttar Pradesh), Korba in Chhattisgarh, Talcher and Rampur in Orissa, Chanda–Wardha, Kamptee and Bander in Maharashtra and Singareni and Pandur in Andhra Pradesh.

(iii) Tertiary coals occur in Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland. It is extracted from Darangiri, Cherrapunji, Mewlong and Langrin (Meghalaya); Makum, Jaipur and Nazira in upper Assam, Namchik – Namphuk (Arunachal Pradesh) and Kalakot (Jammu and Kashmir).

(iv) Besides, the brown coal or lignite occur in the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Gujarat and Jammu and Kashmir


Describe the uses and distribution of manganese ore and bauxite in India.


Uses :

1. Manganese is a ferrous metal which is used in making iron and steel and is used as basic raw material for manufacturing its alloy.

2. It is used in making bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, batteries and china clay.

3. It is used in the making special type of steel.

4. It is used in the colouring of golden jewellary, varnish and in chemical industries. Hence it is called multi-use or jack mineral too.

Distribution : India ranks second in terms of manganese ore reserves and fifth in the production in the world. Manganese reserves are extended in the states of Karnataka, Goa. Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

Orissa : It produces 33% of manganese production. Reserves are found in Sundargarh, Keonjhar, Kalahandi, Koraput districts. Some manganese is also found in Bolangir and Sambalpur districts.

Madhya Pradesh : It produces 20.6% of India's production. It is found chiefly in Balaghat and Chhindwara districts.

Jharkhand : It is found in Singhbhum district.

Maharashtra : It is found in Nagpur and Bhandara districts. Maharashtra produces 23% of total production of India.

Other producers are Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Bihar.


Uses : Bauxite is used in making aluminium which is used for making aircraft, electric wires and building construction.


Orissa : In Orissa, it is found in Kalahandi, Sambalpur, Rayagada and Koraput districts.

Andhra Pradesh : It is found in Vishakhapatnam, Vijayanagar and Srikakulam districts.

Chhattisgarh : Bastar, Bilaspur and Sarguja are the centres.

It is also found in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Jharkhand.

What is solar energy ? Describe the two effective processes to tap solar energy.

Sun rays tapped in photovoltaic cells can be converted into energy, known as solar energy.

The two effective processes considered to be very effective to tap solar energy are photovoltaics and solar thermal technology.

(i) Solar thermal technology has some relative advantages over all other non-renewable energy sources.

(ii) It is cost competitive, environment friendly and easy to construct.

(iii) Solar energy is 7 per cent more effective than coal or oil based plants and 10 per cent more effective than nuclear plants.

(iv) It is generally used more in appliances like heaters, crop dryers, cookers, etc.


Explain the distribution of iron ore in India.

Most of the India’s iron ore is found in the peninsular plateau, almost in all the states of the plateau.

Karnataka : It ranks first in the production of iron ore. The major iron ore fields are

(i) Hospet in Bellari district,

(ii) Bababudan hills,

(iii) Kalahandi and Kamangudi in Chickmaglur district. It is also found in Chitradurga, Shimoga and Tumkur districts.

Chhattisgarh: It occupies second place contributing about 22.2% of the total output. The major fields are Bailadila in Bastar. Dalli, Rajhera in Durg district, Rajgarh, Bilaspur and Sarguja districts.

Orissa : It is found in Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur, Cuttak and Sundargarh.

Goa : It occupies fourth place in the production of iron ore.

Jharkhand : It is the fifth largest producer of iron ore.  Jharkhand has some of the oldest iron ore mines and most of the iron and steel plants are located around them. Most of the important mines such as Noamundi and Gua are located in Poorbi and Pashchimi Singhbhum districts. This belt further extends to Durg, Dantewara and Bailadila.

Maharashtra : The districts of Chandrapur, Bhandara and Ratnagiri are important regions  of Maharashtra.

Tamil Nadu : Salem and N. Arcot, Trichirapalli are the main fields.

In Andhra Pradesh, Kurnul, Guntur, Cuddaprah, Nellore etc. are the main fields.

Define ‘Bio-energy’. State the of significance of Bio-energy.


Bio-energy refers to energy derived from biological products which includes agricultural residues, municipal, industrial and other wastes.

The significance:

(i) Bioenergy is a potential source of energy conversion.

(ii) It can be converted into electrical energy, heat energy or gas for cooking.

(iii) It will also process the waste and garbage and produce energy.

(iv) This will improve economic life of rural areas in developing countries, reduce environmental pollution, enhance self-reliance and reduce pressure on fuel wood.