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Water Resources

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India People And Economy

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Geography

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Class 10 Class 12

What are the major water resources?


Major water resources are:


1. Surface water: It is found in tanks, ponds and rivers.

2. Ground water: A part of surface water which percolates easily in the alluvial soils is ground water.

3. Atmospheric water: It is found in the form of water vapour which falls down on land surface in the form of rainfall and snowfall.

4. Ocean water: Main source of fresh water on land is ocean water. Water from ocean is evaporated and transferred into atmosphere in the form of water vapour and it is converted into water or snow and fall on the ground in the form of rainfall and snow fall.
752 Views

Describe the watershed development and management programmes in the country  initiated by the Central and State Governments.


The programmes: 

(i) Haryali is a watershed development project sponsored by the Central Government which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation. The Project is being executed by Gram Panchayats with people’s participation.

(ii) Neeru-Meeru programme in Andhra Pradesh and Arvary Pani Sansad in Alwar, Rajasthan have taken up constructions of various water-harvesting structures such as percolation tanks, dug out ponds (Johad), check dams, etc. through people’s participation.

(iii) Tamil Nadu has made water harvesting structures in the houses compulsory. No building can be constructed without making structures for water harvesting.
282 Views

Mention the five characteristics each of 'surface water resources' and 'groundwater resources' in India.


The five characteristics of surface water resources in India are mentioned under :

(i) The surface water is found in ponds, tanks, rivers, streams and reservoirs.

(ii) Rivers are the major sources of water in India. There are 10,360 rivers and their tributaries longer than 1.6 km each spread in our country.

(iii) The mean annual flow is estimated to be 1,869 billion cubic metres.

(iv) Only 690 cm (32 percent) of the available surface water can be utilised.

(v) The Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra carry nearly 60 percent of the total surface water.

The five characteristics of groundwater resources in India are as under :

(i) The replenishable ground water potential in India is estimated to be 433.9 billion cubic metres.

(ii) Water percolates easily in the alluvial plains hence it has high potential of ground water.

(iii) Uttar Pradesh alone accounts for 19 percent ground water potential.

(iv) About 42 percent of the ground water potential are confined to the states of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and West Bengal.
 
(v) In the peninsular India, groundwater potential is less or negligible because of rocky land surface.

(vi) Only 37.23 percent of the available ground water resources have so far been developed in India.
201 Views

Describe the potential water resources of India.


Rivers are major source of surface water in India. There are 10360 rivers and tributaries. The mean annual flow is estimated to 1869 billion cubic meters. Because of the topographical hydrological and other constraints only about 690 billion cubic meters (32%) of the available surface water can be utilized.

The table shows the basin wise ground water resources potential.

Basin-wise groundwater resources potential

Basin

Total replenishable ground water resources (million hectare metre per year)

Utilisable groundwater for irrigation (mill. hec. metre per year)

Level of ground water development (percent)

Indus

Ganga

Narmada

Tapi

Mahanadi

Godavari

Krishna

Kaveri

Brahmaputra

2.55

17.17

1.19

0.82

2.13

4.68

2.66

1.36

2.79

2.17

14.59

1.01

0.67

1.81

3.94

2.23

1.16

2.37

79.29

30.79

15.31

20.19

4.32

14.98

29.11

44.72

2.12

257 Views

State the salience of rain water harvesting.

 


Rain water harvesting is a method to capture and store rainwater for various uses.

(i) It is also used to recharge groundwater aquifers.


(ii) It is a low cost and eco-friendly technique for preserving every drop of water by guiding the rain water to bore well, pits and wells.

(iii) Rainwater harvesting increases water availability, checks the declining ground water table.

(iv) It improves the quality of groundwater through dilution of contaminants like fluoride and nitrates.

(v) It prevents soil erosion, and flooding and arrests salt water intrusion in coastal areas if used to recharge aquifers.
176 Views

Why is conservation and management of water resources essential in India? State any three reasons.


The conservation and management of water, is necessary, in India due to the following reasons:


(i) The water resources are depleting as compared to constant increase in population because the amount of precipitation declines very sharply and the fast shrinkage of glaciers due to global warming.

(ii) The intensive agriculture and rapid industrialisation requires more water, hence conservation of water is of utmost importance.

(iii) Due to the increasing population growth and urbanisation, there is more demand of water and the fast rate of depletion of groundwater makes one more aware about the conservation of water resources.
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