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Biotechnology : Principles and Processes

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Class 10 Class 12

Bacillus thuringiensis forms protein crystals, which contain insecticidal protein

  • binds with epithelial cells of midgut of the insect pest ultimately killing it

  • is coded by several genes including the gene cry

  • is acitvated by acid of pH of the foregut is the insect pest

  • does not kill the carrier bacterium which is itself resistant to this toxin


A.

binds with epithelial cells of midgut of the insect pest ultimately killing it

Soil bacterium Bacillus thuringuensis (Bt) possesses is a gene family cry gene (1-40) over its plasmid, which forms endotoxic proteins, cry protein (protein crystals) during a particular phase of its growth. These crystals contain a toxic insecticidal protein.This toxin, however, does not kill the Bacillus.Actually, the BT toxin protein exists as an inactive toxin, it is converted into an active form of toxin due to the alkaline pH of the gut which solubilizes the crystals. The activated toxin binds to the surface of midgut epithelial and lysis, and eventually cause the death of the insect.

Soil bacterium Bacillus thuringuensis (Bt) possesses is a gene family cry gene (1-40) over its plasmid, which forms endotoxic proteins, cry protein (protein crystals) during a particular phase of its growth. These crystals contain a toxic insecticidal protein.This toxin, however, does not kill the Bacillus.Actually, the BT toxin protein exists as an inactive toxin, it is converted into an active form of toxin due to the alkaline pH of the gut which solubilizes the crystals. The activated toxin binds to the surface of midgut epithelial and lysis, and eventually cause the death of the insect.

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What is the role of restriction endonuclease ?

Restriction endonucleases are specific enzymes which can cleave double stranded DNA at specific sites called recognition sequences. Restriction endonucleases provide protection to the bacteria by restricting the growth of bacteriophages. They also serve as tools for Recombinant DNA technology.

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Name the soil bacterium which contain gene for production of endotoxins.

Bacillus thuringiensis.
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What are BACs and YACs ?

BACs and YACs are artificial chromosomes from bacteria and yeast used for efficient gene transfer and gene sequencing.
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Define recombinant DNA.

Recombinant DNA is the artificially created DNA which incorporates DNA segments from different sources into one.
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What is genetic engineering ?

Genetic engineering is a technique for artificially and deliberately modifying DNA (genes) to suit human needs. It is used to change the genetic makeup of the cells by using Recombinant DNA technology 
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