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Biotechnology : Principles and Processes

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Class 10 Class 12

Which one of the following pairs of codons is correctly matched with their function or the signal for the particular amino acid?

  • GUU, GCU - Alanine

  • UAG, UGA - stop

  • AUG, ACG - start/ methionine

  • UUA, UCA -Leucine


B.

UAG, UGA - stop

The group of nucleotides that specifies one amino acid is a code word or condo. The nucleotides of mRNA are arranged as a linear sequence of codons, each London consisting of three successive nitrogenous bases. Three codons UAG, UAA and UGA are the chain stop or termination codons. They do not code for any of the amino acids.

In most organisms AUG codon is the start or initiation codon, They do not code or any of the amino acids.

In most organisms AUG codon is the start or initiation codon, ie, the polypeptide chain starts either with methionine or N-formylmethionine.

Leucine - UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG


Alanine - GUC, GCC, GCA, GCG

GUU - Valine

UCA - Serine

The group of nucleotides that specifies one amino acid is a code word or condo. The nucleotides of mRNA are arranged as a linear sequence of codons, each London consisting of three successive nitrogenous bases. Three codons UAG, UAA and UGA are the chain stop or termination codons. They do not code for any of the amino acids.

In most organisms AUG codon is the start or initiation codon, They do not code or any of the amino acids.

In most organisms AUG codon is the start or initiation codon, ie, the polypeptide chain starts either with methionine or N-formylmethionine.

Leucine - UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG


Alanine - GUC, GCC, GCA, GCG

GUU - Valine

UCA - Serine

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What are BACs and YACs ?

BACs and YACs are artificial chromosomes from bacteria and yeast used for efficient gene transfer and gene sequencing.
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What is the role of restriction endonuclease ?

Restriction endonucleases are specific enzymes which can cleave double stranded DNA at specific sites called recognition sequences. Restriction endonucleases provide protection to the bacteria by restricting the growth of bacteriophages. They also serve as tools for Recombinant DNA technology.

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Define recombinant DNA.

Recombinant DNA is the artificially created DNA which incorporates DNA segments from different sources into one.
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Name the soil bacterium which contain gene for production of endotoxins.

Bacillus thuringiensis.
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What is genetic engineering ?

Genetic engineering is a technique for artificially and deliberately modifying DNA (genes) to suit human needs. It is used to change the genetic makeup of the cells by using Recombinant DNA technology 
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