A secondary cell after use can be recharged by passing current through it in the opposite direction so that it can be used again. A good secondary cell can undergo a large number of discharging and charging cycles. The most important secondary cell is the lead storage battery commonly used in automobiles and invertors.
It consists of a lead anode and a grid of lead packed with lead dioxide (PbO2 ) as cathode. A 38% solution of sulphuric acid is used as an electrolyte.
The cell reactions when the battery is in use are given below:
Anode: Pb(s) + SO42–(aq)----> PbSO4(s) + 2e–
Cathode: PbO2(s) + SO42–(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 2e– ----> PbSO4 (s) + 2H2O (l )
i.e., overall cell reaction consisting of cathode and anode reactions is:
Pb(s) + PbO2(s) + 2H2SO4(aq)---> 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)
On charging the battery the reaction is reversed and PbSO4(s) on anode and cathode is converted into Pb and PbO2, respectively.
= 1.05 V – 0.0295 x log 80
= 1.05 V – 0.0295 x 1.9031
= 1.05 V – 0.056 = 0.99 V.