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Class 10 Class 12
Explain Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions. Mention one application of Kohlrausch’s law.

Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions states molar conductivity of an electrolyte at infinite dilution can be expressed as the sum of the contribution of individual ions. If molar conductivity of cations and anions are represented by λ+ and λ respectively.

where v+ and v are number of cations and anions per formula of electrolyte e.g.,

Λ CaCl2 = λ (Ca2+) + 2 λ (CI)
Λ = KCl = λ (K+) + λ (CI)

Uses 1. It is used to find molar conductivity of weak electrolyte at infinite dilution which
cannot be obtained by extrapolation.

2. It is used to calculate degree of dissociation of weak electrolyte at a particular concentration.
Degree of dissociation
where Λem is molar conductivity of weak electrolyte at a particular concentration and Λemis molar conductivity of weak electrolyte at infinite dilution.

Consult the table of standard electrode potentials and suggest three substance that can oxidize ferrous ions under suitable conditions.

oxidation of ferrous ion means :

Fe2+--> Fe3+ +e-
Any substance which standard electrode potential is more than that of Fe+3 /F+2 can oxidise ferrous ions.
(refer to the table given in book)

The EMF of the substance whose reduction potentials greater than 0.77V will oxidised ferrous ion.
for example Br2, Cl2,and F2 .

Calculate the emf of the cell in which the following reaction takes place:
Ni(s) + 2Ag+ (0.002 M) $\to$ Ni2+ (0.160 M) + 2Ag(s)
Given that

$\mathrm{Ni}\left(\mathrm{s}\right)+2{\mathrm{Ag}}^{+}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)\to {\mathrm{Ni}}^{2+}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)+2\mathrm{As}\left(\mathrm{s}\right)$

or

The equation is also written as

or

= 1.05 V – 0.0295 x log 80

= 1.05 V – 0.0295 x 1.9031

= 1.05 V – 0.056 = 0.99 V.

How would you determine the standard electrode potential of the system Mg2+/Mg?

Use standard hydrogen electrode as anode and Mg2+ | Mg as a cathode we can measure the standard electrodepotential of systemMg2+ | Mg. Standard hydrogen electrode, represented by Pt(s), H2(g) (1 atm) | H+ (aq) and dip the electrode of Magnesium wire in a 1M MgSO4 solution .The standard hydrogen electrode is always zero.
Use formula
Eocell = Eo right  – Eoleft
The standard hydrogen electrode is always zero.
So that the value of
Eoleft =0
Hence
Eocell = Eo Mg|Mg2+
Or
Eo Mg|Mg2+= Eocell

Can you store copper sulphate solutions in a Zinc pot?

No. Because zinc is more reactive than copper and thus holes will be developed in zinc pot.

Cu2+(aq) + Zn(s) → Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s)

Calculate the potential of hydrogen electrode in contact with a solution whose pH is 10.