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Class 10 Class 12
Define conductivity and molar conductivity for the solution of an electrolyte.

Conductivity :–
Conductivity of a solution is equal to the conductance of a solution of 1 cm length
and cross section area of 1 square cm.  it may also be define as the conductance of ine centimeter cube of the conductor . It is represented by the symbol Kappa (κ). mathematically we can write
κ = 1/ p
here ρ is resistivity
the unit of K is ohm –1 cm –1 or S cm–1
The conductivity, κ, of an electrolytic solution depends on the concentration of the electrolyte, nature of solvent andtemperature.

Molar conductivity:
Molar conductivity of a solution at a given concentration is the conductance of the volume V of solution containing one mole of electrolyte kept between two electrodes with area of cross section A and distance of unit length. Therefore,
Distance is unit  so l = 1
Volume          = area of base × length
So V   = A × 1  = A
Λm       =κA/l
Λm       = κV
Or
Molar conductivity increases with decrease in concentration. When concentration approaches zero, the molar conductivity is known as limiting molar conductivity and is represented by the symbol Ëom.
For strong electrolytes, Λ increases slowly with dilution and can be represented by the equation:
Λm = Ë°m° – A c ½

It can be seen that if we plot Λm against c1/2, we obtain a straight line with intercept equal to Ëm° and slope equal to ‘–A’. The value of the constant ‘A’ for a given solvent and temperature depends on the type of electrolyte i.e., the charges on the cation and anion produced on the dissociation of the electrolyte in solution.

Consult the table of standard electrode potentials and suggest three substance that can oxidize ferrous ions under suitable conditions.

oxidation of ferrous ion means :

Fe2+--> Fe3+ +e-
Any substance which standard electrode potential is more than that of Fe+3 /F+2 can oxidise ferrous ions.
(refer to the table given in book)

The EMF of the substance whose reduction potentials greater than 0.77V will oxidised ferrous ion.
for example Br2, Cl2,and F2 .

Can you store copper sulphate solutions in a Zinc pot?

No. Because zinc is more reactive than copper and thus holes will be developed in zinc pot.

Cu2+(aq) + Zn(s) → Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s)

Calculate the emf of the cell in which the following reaction takes place:
Ni(s) + 2Ag+ (0.002 M) $\to$ Ni2+ (0.160 M) + 2Ag(s)
Given that

$\mathrm{Ni}\left(\mathrm{s}\right)+2{\mathrm{Ag}}^{+}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)\to {\mathrm{Ni}}^{2+}\left(\mathrm{aq}\right)+2\mathrm{As}\left(\mathrm{s}\right)$

or

The equation is also written as

or

= 1.05 V – 0.0295 x log 80

= 1.05 V – 0.0295 x 1.9031

= 1.05 V – 0.056 = 0.99 V.

Calculate the potential of hydrogen electrode in contact with a solution whose pH is 10.

For hydrogen electrode, ,
given that      pH = 10
use formula [H+] = 10–pH
so that  [H+] = 10−10 M
Electrode reaction will
H+  + e –  →1/2 H2
Use the formula

How would you determine the standard electrode potential of the system Mg2+/Mg?

Use standard hydrogen electrode as anode and Mg2+ | Mg as a cathode we can measure the standard electrodepotential of systemMg2+ | Mg. Standard hydrogen electrode, represented by Pt(s), H2(g) (1 atm) | H+ (aq) and dip the electrode of Magnesium wire in a 1M MgSO4 solution .The standard hydrogen electrode is always zero.
Use formula
Eocell = Eo right  – Eoleft
The standard hydrogen electrode is always zero.
So that the value of
Eoleft =0
Hence
Eocell = Eo Mg|Mg2+
Or
Eo Mg|Mg2+= Eocell

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