Van’t Hoff introduced a factor ‘i’ called Van’t Hoff’s factor, to express the extent of association or dissociation of solutes in solution. It is ratio of the normal and observed molecular masses of the solute, i.e
In case of association, observed molecular mass being more than the normal, the factor i has a value less than 1. But in case of dissociation, the Van’t Hoff’s factor is more than 1 because the observed molecular mass has a lesser value than the normal molecular mass. In case there is no dissociation the value of ‘i’ becomes equal to one.
Molality (m) is defined as the number of moles of the solute per kilogram (kg) of the solvent and is expressed as:
Calculate (a) molality (b) molarity and (c) mole fraction of KI if the density of 20% (mass/mass) aqueous KI is 1.202 g mL-1.
Molarity (M) is defined as number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre (or one cubic decimetre) of solution.
(a) Mol. mass of
Volume of solution = 4.3 L
(b) Number of moles present in 1000 ml of 0.5M H2SO4= 0.5 mol
therefore number of moles present in 30ml of 0.5M H2SO4=mol =0.015mol
therefore molarity =0.015/0.5L
thus molarity is 0.03M
Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride.
Let the total mass of the solution be 100g and mass of benzene be 30 g
therefore mass of tetrachloride= (100-30)g = 70g
Molar mass of benzene,