Osmotic pressure: Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure that should be applied to the more concentrated solution to prevent osmosis.
osmotic pressure is proportional to the molarity, C of the solution at a given temperature T. Thus: Π = C R T
Here Π is the osmotic pressure and R is the gas constant.
(a) Measurement of Osmotic Pressure. Different methods are employed for the measurement of osmotic pressure in the laboratory but Berkley and Hartley's method gives the best results. The apparatus consists of a porous pot containing copper ferrocyanide deposited in its wall (acts as semi-permeable membrane) and fitted into a bronze cylinder to which is fitted a piston and a pressure gauge (to read the applied pressure).
The pot is fitted with a capillary indicator on left and water reservoir on right. Pot is filled with water while the cylinder is filled with a solution whose osmotic pressure is to be measured. Water tends to pass into the solution through the semipermeable membrane with the result that the water level in the indicator falls down. External pressure is now applied with piston so as to maintain a constant level in the indicator. This external pressure is osmotic pressure.
If the membrane used was a slightly, leaky, then the measured valued of osmotic pressure will not be definite.
Fig. Berkley and Hartley's apparatus.
we have given that
mB = 7g
R=0.0821 L atm K-1 mol
Calculate (a) molality (b) molarity and (c) mole fraction of KI if the density of 20% (mass/mass) aqueous KI is 1.202 g mL-1.
Molality (m) is defined as the number of moles of the solute per kilogram (kg) of the solvent and is expressed as:
Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride.
Let the total mass of the solution be 100g and mass of benzene be 30 g
therefore mass of tetrachloride= (100-30)g = 70g
Molar mass of benzene,
Molarity (M) is defined as number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre (or one cubic decimetre) of solution.
(a) Mol. mass of
Volume of solution = 4.3 L
(b) Number of moles present in 1000 ml of 0.5M H2SO4= 0.5 mol
therefore number of moles present in 30ml of 0.5M H2SO4=mol =0.015mol
therefore molarity =0.015/0.5L
thus molarity is 0.03M