Raoult’s law states that the partial vapour pressure of a component of a solution at a given temperature is equal to the product of the vapour pressure of the pure component at that temperature and its mole fraction in the solution.
Positive Deviation from Raoult’s law: In those non-ideal solutions, when partial pressure of component ‘A’ in the mixture of ‘A’ and ‘B’ is more than that calculated from Raoult’s law. Similarly, the partial vapour pressure of component ‘B’ can be higher than calculated from Raoult’s law. This type of deviation from ideal behaviour is called positive deviation from Raoult’s law, e.g., water and ethanol, chloroform and water, ethanol and CCl4, methanol and chloroform, benzene and methanol, acetic acid and toluene, acetone and ethanol, methanol and H2O.
For positive deviation ΔHmixing > 0.
Molality (m) is defined as the number of moles of the solute per kilogram (kg) of the solvent and is expressed as:
Molarity (M) is defined as number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre (or one cubic decimetre) of solution.
(a) Mol. mass of
Volume of solution = 4.3 L
(b) Number of moles present in 1000 ml of 0.5M H2SO4= 0.5 mol
therefore number of moles present in 30ml of 0.5M H2SO4=mol =0.015mol
therefore molarity =0.015/0.5L
thus molarity is 0.03M
Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride.
Let the total mass of the solution be 100g and mass of benzene be 30 g
therefore mass of tetrachloride= (100-30)g = 70g
Molar mass of benzene,
Calculate (a) molality (b) molarity and (c) mole fraction of KI if the density of 20% (mass/mass) aqueous KI is 1.202 g mL-1.