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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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Class 10 Class 12
What makes a glass different from a solid such as quartz? Under what conditions could quartz be converted into glass? 

It is the arrangement of constituent particles of glass which makes it different from quartz. The constituent particles of glass have short range order while quartz has constituent particles in long range order and short range order both.

By heating and cooling rapidly quartz can be converted into glass.




1. Structure

2. Melting point

Quartz is crystalline and it has long range order.

Quartz has a sharp melting point. It changes into viscous liquid at 1983 K.

Amorphous silica does not have a regular structure of long range order.

Glass does not have a sharp melting point. On heating it softens and melts over a wide range of temperature.


If SiO2 is melted and the melt is cooled very, rapidly it forms a glass.

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.

Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.