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Class 10 Class 12
Define the term ‘amorphous’.

Amorphous solids are the solids whose constituent particles have a completely random arrangement. Amorphous solids do not have a sharp melting point and melt over a range of temperature. These solids are isotropic in nature. Amorphous solid have elasticity, electric conductance, reflective index and rate of dissociation are the same throughout all the direction. Amorphous solid always flow very slowly therefore, amorphous solids are sometimes called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids. Amorphous solid do not have definite heat of fusion. When we cut a piece of amorphous solid cut with a sharp–edged tool, they cut into two pieces with irregular surfaces. Examples :– glass, rubber, and plastic.

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Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.
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Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.
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Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.
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Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .
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Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.
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