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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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Chemistry

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Give reasons for the following:
Ionic solids, inspite of being made up of ions, do not conduct electricity.

Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity because the ions (charged particles) are locked into a rigid lattice or array. The ions cannot move out of the lattice, so the solid cannot conduct electricity.

When molten, the ions are free to move out of the lattice structure.

 

  • Cations (positive ions) move towards the negative electrode (cathode) 
    M+ + e -----> M

     

  • Anions (negative ions) move towards the positive electrode (anode) 
    X- -----> X + e

When an ionic solid is dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution, the ions are released from the lattice structure and are free to move so the solution conducts electricity just like the molten (liquid) ionic compound.

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Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.
1237 Views

Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.
1439 Views

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .
1368 Views

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.
2488 Views

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.
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