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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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Chemistry

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12

In terms of band theory, what is the difference between a conductor and an insulator?


Solution:

Molecular orbirals of metals are formed by atomic orbitals. These orbitals are so close to each other as they form band or valence band.

(i) Difference between conductor and insulator - In conductors there is no energy gap between the valence band, which facilitates the flow of electrons easily under an applied electric field and metals show conductivity.

While in insulators there is large energy gap between the valence band and electrons cannot jump to it i.e. large energy gap prevents the flow of electricity.

(ii)Difference between conductors and semiconductor - In conductors there is no energy gap between the valence band and conduction band, which facilitates the flow of electrons easily under an applied electric field and metals show conductivity.

While in semi conductors, there is small energy gap between valence bond and conduction band. The small gap between band facilitates some electrons to jump to the conduction band by acquiring extra energy.

231 Views

Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.
1439 Views

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.
1055 Views

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.
2488 Views

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.
1237 Views

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .
1368 Views