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Class 10 Class 12
How would you account for the following:
Impurity doped silicon is a semiconductor.

Silicon forms four covalent bonds thus two types of impurities can be added to silicon.
for example : boron can be added or phosphorus can be added.
In case of boron : boron form three bonds with silicon, it will result in an electron deficient bond andwill create a hole. These holes can move through crystal like positive charge giving rise electrical conductivity.
In case of phosphorus: when silicon forms four bonds with phosphorus one electron of phosphorous atom will remain unbonded due to which it become delocalizedn and contributes to electrical conductivity.

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .

Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.

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