ï»¿ What type of defect can arise when a solid is heated? Which physical property is affected by it and in what way? from Chemistry The Solid State Class 12 Nagaland Board

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Class 10 Class 12
What type of defect can arise when a solid is heated? Which physical property is affected by it and in what way?

Non-stoichiometric defects can arise when a solid is heated.
The crystals with this defect becomes coloured. Alkali halides like NaCl and KCl show this type of defect. When crystals of NaCl are heated in an atmosphere of sodium vapour, the sodium atoms are deposited on the surface of the crystal. The CI ions diffuse to the surface of the crystal and combine with Na atoms to give NaCl. This happens by loss of electron by sodium atoms to form Na+ ions. The released electrons diffuse into the crystal and occupy an ionic sites. As a result the crystal now has an excess of sodium. They impart yellow colour to the crystals of NaCl.

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Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.
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Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .
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Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.
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Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.
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Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.
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