Explain how vacancies are introduced in an ionic solid when a cation of higher valence is added as an impurity in it. from Chemistry The Solid State Class 12 Nagaland Board
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Class 10 Class 12
Explain how vacancies are introduced in an ionic solid when a cation of higher valence is added as an impurity in it.

If we mix a small amount of molten strontium chloride (SrCl2) with molten sodium chloride (NaCl) and the resulting solution is cooled, in the crystals of NaCl some Na+ ions will get replaced by Sr2+ ions. In order to maintain electron neutrality too Na+ ions are to leave their respective lattice sites. However, one out of them will be occupied by the Sr2+ion while the other will remain unoccupied or it will be vacant. Thus vacancies are introduced in an ionic solid.
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Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.
1439 Views

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.
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Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.
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Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.
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Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .
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