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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Explain the following terms with suitable examples:
'Schottky defect'

Schottky defects : When cations and anions both are missing from regular sites, the defect is called Schottky Defect. In Schottky Defects, the number of missing cations is equal to the number of missing anions in order to maintain the electrical neutrality of the ionic compound.

Schottky Defect is type of simple vacancy defect and shown by ionic solids having cations and anions; almost similar in size, such as NaCl, KCl, CsCl, etc. AgBr shows both types of defects, i.e. Schottky and Frenkel Defects.

Since, Schottky Defects arises because of mission of constituent particles, thus it decreases the density of ionic compound.


Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.

Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.