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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Explain the following term with suitable examples:
'Frenkel defect'

It is a type of vacancy defect. In ionic compounds, some of the ions (usually smaller in size) get dislocated from their original site and create defect. This defect is known as Frenkel Defects. Since this defect arises because of dislocation of ions, thus it is also known as Dislocation Defects. As there are a number of cations and anions (which remain equal even because of defect); the density of the substance does not increase or decrease.

Ionic compounds; having large difference in the size between their cations and anions; show Frenkel Defects, such as ZnS, AgCl, AgBr, AgI, etc. These compounds have smaller size of cations compared to anions.


Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .