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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Explain the following with suitable examples:

Ferromagnetism: few substances like iron, cobalt, nickel, gadolinium and CrOare strongly attracted by a magnetic field. Such substances are known as ferromagnetic substances. These substances can be permanently magnetised with the help of strong electrostatic field.  The metal ions of ferromagnetic substances are grouped together into small regions called domains in solid state. So that each domain acts as a tiny magnet. The domains of  un magnetized piece of a ferromagnetic are randomly oriented so that their magnetic moments get cancelled out. When such substance is placed in a magnetic field, all the domains get oriented in the direction of the magnetic field  and a strong magnetic effect is produced. This ordering of domains remains same  even when the magnetic field is removed and the ferromagnetic substance becomes a permanent magnet.

Fig.  Schematic alignments of magnetic moments in ferromagnetism.


Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.

Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.