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The Solid State

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Chemistry I

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Class 10 Class 12
Tungsten has a density of 19.35 g cm–3 and the length of the side of the unit cell is 316 pm. The unit cell is a body centred unit cell. How many atoms does 50 grams of the element contain ?

we have given,

density =19.35 g cm-3
edge length =316 pm
Number of unit cell =2 (BCC)
Mass =?

Length of edge of the unit cell = 316 pm =316 x 10-10cmvolume of the unit cell = (316 x 10-10cm)3                              = 3.2 x 10-23 cm3/unit cellDensity  =atomic mass x Zunit cell volume  x NAAtomic mass = Density xUnit volume  xNAZ=19.35 x 3.2 x 10-23 x 6.023 x 10 232 =186.5 g/ molAs 186.5 g the element contain NA atoms   = 6.023 x 10 23 atomsso 50g of the element contain NA atoms =6.023 x 1023 x 50186.5=1.614 x 1023 atoms


Classify the following as amorphous or crystalline solids: Polyurethane, naphthalene, benzoic acid, teflon, potassium nitrate, cellophane, polyvinyl chloride, fibre glass, copper.

Amorphous solids: Polyurethane, teflon, cellophane, polyvinyal chloride, fibre glass.
Crystalline solids: naphthlene, benzoic acid, potassium nitrate, copper.

Why do solids have a definite volume?

A solid have a definite volume because the inter molecular distance  between its molecules are fixed.

Why are solids rigid?

Solids are rigid because the internuclear distance between the  molecules of a solid are very less and closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong forces of attraction between them.

Refractive index of a solid is observed to have the same value along all directions. Comment on the nature of this solid. Would it show clevage property?

Refractive index of a solid which have the same value along all directions are isotropic in nature. It would not show cleavage property.

Why is glass considred a super-cooled liquid?

Glass is amorphous solids and  have a tendency to flow, though very slowly. Therefore, these are called pseudo solids or super cooled liquids .