1. The people of Africa, made use of iron tools for clearing the forests and reaping the harvest. Consequently, agriculture developed here at a quick pace.
2. The iron tools helped a lot in manufacturing ivory goods and digging out gold reserves. Their use resulted in the development of other industries.
3. Several states of Africa extended their territories with the help of iron weapons.
4. A considerable progress tool place in the trade of the African civilizations because of iron. Iron ore of Africa began to be exported to the countries of Asia, Arab and Europe.
(i) Palatial Buildings : The Inca Civilization and many tall buildings. These buildings include palaces, temples and forts which mostly made up of stones.
(ii) Cities : Each city was divided into four parts. Each city was ruled over by a noble.
(iii) Beautiful Roads : There was a network of roads in the empire.
(iv) Engineering Excellence : The Inca people are famous for their engineering skill. Their temples, forts, bridges and means of irrigation are of a unique construction.
(v) Social Classes : The king was the head of the State. He inherited his power from the sun. After the king the nobles and priests came. The farmers and craftsmen were ordinary people.
(vi) Agriculture : There was ladder type agriculture on mountains. They grew maize, potatoes and beets.
(vii) Handicrafts : The Incas were perfect in pottery, weaving and making beautiful designs.
(viii) Script : They had no script. Their writing was of Quivu type.
II. Achievements of Aztec Civilization :
(i) Society : The society was divided among warriors, businessmen, artistans, farmers and slaves. They worshipped the sun and other gods.
(ii) Special Achievements : The floating gardens were their special achievements.
(iii) Handicrafts : Their pottery, cotton cloth and goldsmithy was very fine.
(iv) Script : Their script was pictorial. Their history was written in pictorial manner.
(v) Calendar : Their calendar had 260 days in a year. Their calendar was related to religious occasions.
2. Main features of the Slave System of Kongo :
(i) In Kongo the system of slavery was prevalent but they were not sold and bought in the markets like the other Kingdoms of Africa.
(ii) The slaves lived with the family of their Masters.
(iii) The slaves had the right to change their Masters.
(iv) Here, the slaves had the right to have their own property.
(v) Mostly the slaves in Kongo were the prisoners of war, criminals or people who were under debt.
South America today is also called "Latin America". This is because Spanish and Portuguese, two of the main languages of the continent, are part of the Latin family of languages.
The inhabitants are mostly native European (called Creole), European and African by origin. Most of them are Catholics. Their culture has many elements of native traditions mixed with European ones.
2. ln 1532, Atahualpa secured the throne of the Inca empire after a civil war. Pizarro arrived on the scene and captured the king after setting a trap for him. The king offered a roomful of gold as ransom for his release – the most extravagant ransom recorded in history – but Pizarro did not honour his promise.
He had the king executed, and his followers went on a looting spree. This was followed by the occupation of the country. The cruelty of the conquerors provoked an uprising in 1534 that continued for two years, during which time thousands died in war and due to epidemics.
3. In another five years, the Spanish had located the vast silver mines in Potosi (in Upper Peru, modern Bolivia) and to work these they made the Inca people into slaves.