Chapter Chosen

Changing traditions

Book Store

Download books and chapters from book store.
Currently only available for.
CBSE

Previous Year Papers

Download the PDF Question Papers Free for off line practice and view the Solutions online.
Currently only available for.
Class 10 Class 12
Discuss the importance of iron and foreign trade in the growth of African civilizations.

Iron has a great importance in the development of civilizations in Africa. The historians estimate that the people of Africa acquired knowledge about iron probably in 1000 B.C. They got this knowledge from the Egyptians.
Whatever significant contribution the iron has made in the development of the African civilization is depicted like this :

1. The people of Africa, made use of iron tools for clearing the forests and reaping the harvest. Consequently, agriculture developed here at a quick pace.

2. The iron tools helped a lot in manufacturing ivory goods and digging out gold reserves. Their use resulted in the development of other industries.

3. Several states of Africa extended their territories with the help of iron weapons.

4. A considerable progress tool place in the trade of the African civilizations because of iron. Iron ore of Africa began to be exported to the countries of Asia, Arab and Europe.


Describe the achievements of the Inca and Aztec Civilizations.


I. Achievements of Inca Civilization :

(i) Palatial Buildings : The Inca Civilization and many tall buildings. These buildings include palaces, temples and forts which mostly made up of stones.

(ii) Cities : Each city was divided into four parts. Each city was ruled over by a noble.

(iii) Beautiful Roads : There was a network of roads in the empire.

(iv) Engineering Excellence : The Inca people are famous for their engineering skill. Their temples, forts, bridges and means of irrigation are of a unique construction.

(v) Social Classes : The king was the head of the State. He inherited his power from the sun. After the king the nobles and priests came. The farmers and craftsmen were ordinary people.

(vi) Agriculture : There was ladder type agriculture on mountains. They grew maize, potatoes and beets.

(vii) Handicrafts : The Incas were perfect in pottery, weaving and making beautiful designs.

(viii) Script : They had no script. Their writing was of Quivu type.


II. Achievements of Aztec Civilization :

(i) Society : The society was divided among warriors, businessmen, artistans, farmers and slaves. They worshipped the sun and other gods.

(ii) Special Achievements : The floating gardens were their special achievements.

(iii) Handicrafts : Their pottery, cotton cloth and goldsmithy was very fine.

(iv) Script : Their script was pictorial. Their history was written in pictorial manner.

(v) Calendar : Their calendar had 260 days in a year. Their calendar was related to religious occasions.

Tips: -

 (Imp.)

Describe the main features of the administrative system as well as of slave system of Kongo Empire.


1. The Administrative system of the Kongo Empire : The Kingdom of Kongo developed in the neighbourhood of the Kongo river in 15th century. This Kingdom developed the unitary form of Government. Here, the king was the given divine honours and absolute powers. But the kingship was not hereditary.
The king was elected from among a number of aristocratic families. Here, the kings could not use the absolute powers because there were assemblies of people to carry on the administration. The administration of this kingdom was centralized and efficient.

2. Main features of the Slave System of Kongo :

(i) In Kongo the system of slavery was prevalent but they were not sold and bought in the markets like the other Kingdoms of Africa.
(ii) The slaves lived with the family of their Masters.
(iii) The slaves had the right to change their Masters.
(iv) Here, the slaves had the right to have their own property.
(v) Mostly the slaves in Kongo were the prisoners of war, criminals or people who were under debt.


Write a short note on Latin America.

In the early nineteenth century, European settlers in the South American colonies were to rebel against Spain and Portugal and become independent countries, just as in 1776 the thirteen North American colonies rebelled against Britain and formed the United States of America.

South America today is also called "Latin America". This is because Spanish and Portuguese, two of the main languages of the continent, are part of the Latin family of languages.
The inhabitants are mostly native European (called Creole), European and African by origin. Most of them are Catholics. Their culture has many elements of native traditions mixed with European ones.


what do you know about Pizarro and the Incas ?


1. Pizarro had heard stories about the Inca kingdom as a land of silver and gold (El-dor-ado) He made repeated attempts to reach it from the Pacific. On one of his journeys back home. He was able to meet the Spanish king and show him beautifully designed gold jars of Inca workmanship.
The king's greed was aroused, and he promised Pizarro the governorship of the Inca lands if he conquered it. Pizarro planned to follow Cortes' method, but was disconcerted to find that the situation in the Inca empire was different.

2. ln 1532, Atahualpa secured the throne of the Inca empire after a civil war. Pizarro arrived on the scene and captured the king after setting a trap for him. The king offered a roomful of gold as ransom for his release – the most extravagant ransom recorded in history – but Pizarro did not honour his promise.
He had the king executed, and his followers went on a looting spree. This was followed by the occupation of the country. The cruelty of the conquerors provoked an uprising in 1534 that continued for two years, during which time thousands died in war and due to epidemics.

3. In another five years, the Spanish had located the vast silver mines in Potosi (in Upper Peru, modern Bolivia) and to work these they made the Inca people into slaves.