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Which of the following structure in Pheretima posthuma plays the role of the liver of vertebrates ?

  • Calciferous glands

  • Gland cells

  • Chloragogen cells

  • Cliteller cells


Chloragogen cells

Chloragogen cells of Pheretima posthuma are analogous to liver of vertebrates. They are said to be excretory. They may also store the reserve food material and manufacture glycogen from fatty acids.


The parasphenoid bone in frog forms :

  • base of cranium

  • floor of cranium

  • dorsal side of cranium

  • dorsolateral side of cranium


floor of cranium

Parasphenoid bone is a flattened and inverted T-shaped bone which lies in the median line along the floor of cranium.


A frog has its brain crushed. But when pinched on the leg, The leg draws away. It is an example of

  • neurotransmitter incluced response

  • simple reflex

  • conditioned reflex

  • automated motor response


simple reflex

Simple reflex action is a nerve mediated spontaneous automatic and involuntary response to a stimulus acting on a specific receptor without consulting the will of the animal.

Conditioned reflexes are those reflex actions that are not present at birth but develop later in life through learning, habit, experience or regular association of an indifferent stimulus with unconditioned stimulus.


Striped muscles are

  • anucleate

  • binucleate

  • uninucleate

  • syncytial



Striped (striated or skeletal or voluntary) muscles are syncytial. Nuclei are spindle shaped, peripheral in position and lie near the sarcolemma. They are multi nucleate because each fibre is formed by the fusion of a number of embryonic stem cells (myoblasts), hence, regarded multicellular syncytial body.


Tadpoles can be made to grow in size and become adult by

  • injecting thyroxine hormone

  • feeding the eggs of other frogs

  • injecting gonadotrophic hormones

  • providing them with suitable climatic conditions


injecting thyroxine hormone

Tadpoles can be made to grow in size and become adult by injecting thyroxine hormone. By metamorphosis, tadpole grows in size and becomes adult. It is under neuroendocrine control.

Thyroxine Releasing Factor or TRF is secreted by Hypothalamus.

Anterior Pituitary gets stimulated and produces TSH.

Thyroid produces T4 and T3 hormones.

Metamorphosis of the tadpole starts.


Non-cellular layer that connects inner surface of the epithelial tissue to the connective tissue is

  • basement membrane

  • epidermis

  • dermis

  • either (b) or (c).


basement membrane

The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that seperates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue.


The peculiar pungent smell of cockroach is produced by the secretions of :

  • pheromones

  • flame cells

  • abdominal glands

  • cervical glands



Pheromones are the secretion of small amount of chemical substances leading to specific physiological or behavioural responses in other members of the same species. They are mainly used to induce mating. 


The ganglia of sympathetic and the central nervous system in frog develops from the

  • neural cell

  • neural plate cells

  • notochordal cells

  • neural crest cells


neural crest cells

In frog, all nerve cells connecting to central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) with receptor and effectors constitute the peripheral nervous system. Some small masses of nerve cell bodies are called ganglia. They develop from neural crest cells in frog.


Excretion in cockroach takes place by

  • nephridium

  • parotid gland

  • coxal glands

  • malpighian tubules


malpighian tubules

In cockroach, excretion is mainly performed by one or two pairs of malpighian tubules. One of this pair opens into the middle region of intestine and other pair of coxal glands are located in prosoma and opens at bases of fifth walking legs.


Assertion : Leaf butterfly and stick insect show mimicry to dodge their enemies.

Reason : Mimicry is a method to acquire body colour blending with the surroundings.

  • If both Assertion and Reason are true and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion

  • If both Assertion and Reason are true but the reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion

  • If Assertion is true statement but Reason is false

  • If both Assertion and Reason are false statements


If both Assertion and Reason are true and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion

Mimicry is a process by which two or more organisms independently derive protection from predation. This may be done by acquiring body colour blending with the surrounding or sometimes they bring resemblance to a distasteful, poisonous or harmful organisms. Leaf butterfly and stick insect show the colour of leaf, stem etc by which they can dodge their enemies and predator.