Explain how dynastic succession is a major challenge for political parties in India.
The explanations are-
(i) It does not practice open and transparent procedures.
(ii) It prevents ordinary workers from rising to the top.
(iii) It brings unfair advantages to people close to them or even their family members.
(iv) People who do have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power.
Explain ‘the challenge of deepening of democracy’ by stating three points.
The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every democracy in one form or another.
(i) This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy.
(ii) Helping people’s participation and control in democratic institutions.
(iii) This requires an attempt to bring down the influence of the rich and powerful people in the decision-making of the government decision.
Explain any four ideas of Liberal Nationalists in the economic sphere.
Explain any four ways in which teachers and students organised resistance against the French in Vietnam.
The four ideas of liberal nationalists in the economic sphere were-
(i) Liberal nationalists stood for freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
(ii)They formed the Custom Union or Zolleverin in Prussia in 1834, joined by most of the German states, advancing the cause for a unified economic territory.
(iii)The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
(iv)They stood for the creation of a network of railways which improved mobility harnessing economic interest to national unification.
The ways in which teachers and students organised resistance against the French in Vietnam were -
(i) Vietnamese teachers quietly modified the text and criticised what was started.
(ii) The students protested in the Saigon Native girls school when a Vietnamese girl was discriminated against the French students.
(iii) Students fought against the government’s efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs.
(iv) Students formed various political parties, such as the Party of Young Annan, and published nationalist journals such as the Annamese Student.
How do democracies accommodate social diversity? Explain.
Democracies accommodates social diversities as-
(i) Provides a method to resolve conflicts.
(ii) Allows room to correct mistakes.
(iii) Democracies usually develop a procedure to conduct competition which reduces the possibility of tensions becoming explosive or violent.
Explain the role of democratic governments in reducing economic disparities.
The role of democratic government in reducing economic disparities are-
(i) Democratic government distributes wealth in an equitable manner amongst its population
(ii) Democratic government implements social welfare schemes for poverty reduction.
(iii) Democratic government provides equal opportunities in all sphere without any discriminations.
Explain any four terms of credit with examples.
Four terms of credit are-
(i) Interest rate- Every loan agreement specifies an interest rate which the borrower must pay to the lender along with the repayment of the principal.
(ii) Collateral- It is an asset that the borrower owns such as land, building, vehicle, live stocks deposits with the banks and uses this as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid.
(iii) Documentation-It is related to identification such as employment records and salary.
(iv) Mode of repayment- This refers to the manner in which loan would be repaid.
Explain four points about Gandhiji’s idea of ‘satyagraha’.
Gandhiji’s ideas of satyagraha were-
(i) Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and need to search for truth.
(ii) It suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
(iii) Without seeking vengeance or being aggressive, a satyagrahi could win the battle through non-violence. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.
(iv) Gandhiji also believed that people had to be persuaded, instead of being forced, to see the truth through non-violence.
Mention any two inland waterways of India. Write three characteristics of each.
Two inland waterways of India are-
(i) The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri.
(ii) The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia
(A) Characteristics of Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri-
(i) The waterway is 891 km long.
(ii) It is also known as National Waterway No.2
(iii) It facilitates national security.
(B) Characteristics Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia-
(i) It is known as National Waterway No.1
(ii) It is 1620 km long.
(iii) It provides pilgrimage.