Explain the strategies for procuring materials by the Harappans for the craft production.
The Strategies for procuring materials by the Harappans for craft production are:
(i)The Harappans procured materials for craft production in various ways . They established settlements such as Nageshwar and Balakot in areas where shell was available.
(ii)Other sites like Shortughai , in far off Afghanistan , the best source of lapis lazuli , a blue stone that was apparently very highly valued. From Lothal and Bharuch –carnelian was procured , steatite from south Rajasthan and North Gujarat.
(iii) Another strategy for procuring raw material may have been to send expeditions to areas such as Khetri region of Rajasthan for copper and South India for Gold.
(iv)Recent Archaeological finds suggest that Harappans procured material from other countries like – they got copper from Oman a region called Magan in Mesopotamian texts. It is likely that communication with Oman , Bahrain or Mesopotamia was by sea.
How have the Prashastis drawn the factual information about the Gupta rulers ?
Factual information from prashatis about the Gupta rulers:
(i)Histories of the Gupta rulers have been reconstructed from literature , coins and inscriptions , including prashastis , composed in praise of kings by poets.
(ii)While historians often attempt to draw factual information from such compositions , those who composed and read them treasured them as works of poetry rather than as accounts.
Historians have used a variety of sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire. State any four such sources.
Sources to reconstruct the history of the Mauryan Empire are:
(i)Archaeological finds, especially sculpture.
(ii)The account of Megasthenes, a Greek ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya, which survives in fragments.
(iii)The Arthashastra, parts of which were probably composed by Kautilya or Chanakya, traditionally believed to be the minister of Chandragupta.
(iv)Buddhist , Jaina and Puranic literature , as well as Sanskrit literary works. The inscriptions of Asoka on rocks and pillars.
The Lingayats disapproved certain practices of the Dharmashashtras. Cite any two such practices.
Lingayats disapproved practices of the Dharmashashtra were:
(ii)They worship Shiva in his manifestation as a linga . They do not practice funerary rites such as cremation , prescribed in the Dharmashashtra. Instead , they ceremonially bury their dead.
(ii)They encouraged practices such as post puberty marriage and the remarriage of windows disapproved in the Dharmashashtras.
Name the region where the Lottery Committee initiated town planning during the 18th century. Mention any one feature of it.
Lottery committee initiated town planning in Calcutta.
It raised funds for town improvement through public lotteries.
Critically examine Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation in Awadh.
Dalhousie’s policy of annexation of Awadh were:
(i)Dalhousie described the kingdom of Awadh as “a cherry that will drop into our mouth one day “. The conquest happened in stages. The Subsidiary Alliance had been imposed on Awadh in 1801.
(ii) By the terms of this alliance the Nawab had to disband his military force , allow the British to position their troops within the kingdom , and act in accordance with the advice of the British Resident who was attached to the court. Thus the Nawab became dependent on British.
(iii)The British became interested in acquiring Awadh as its soil was good for producing Indigo and cotton, and the region was ideally located to be developed into the principal market of Upper India.(iv)Annexation of Awadh would complete the territorial annexation by the British beginning with that of Bengal a century earlier. It was annexed on the grounds of maladministration.
Read the following passage and answer the question that follows :
Dr. Khushdeva Singh describes his work as ‘‘humble efforts I made to discharge my duty as a human being to fellow human beings.’’
‘‘Love is stronger than hate.’’ How true is this value which was proved at the time of the partition of India ? What are the values one needs to instill and nurture to avoid hatred ? Explain
This value is true as historians have discovered numerous stories of how people helped each other during the partition.
The values one needs to instill and nurture to avoid hatred are:
(i)Respect for all religions equally.
(iii)Kindness and compassion.
Identify the distinctive features of the imperial household of the Mughal Empire.
The distictive features of the imperial household of the Mughal Empire are:
(i)The Mughal household consisted of the emperor’s wives and concubines , his near and distant relatives and female servants and slaves.
(ii)Polygamy was practiced widely.
(iii)Distinction was maintained between begams and aghas. The concubines occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy of females intimately related to royalty.(iv)The lineage based family structure was not entirely static. Motherhood played important roles in elevating status.
Examine the policies adopted by the British towards the Paharias during early 18th century in Bengal.
The policies adopted by the British towards the Paharias were:
(i)In the 1770s the British embarked on the brutal policy of extermination , hunting the Paharias down and killing them.
(ii)By the 1780s , Augustus Cleveland, the Collector of Bhagalpur, proposed a policy of pacification.
(iii)Paharia chiefs were given an annual allowance and made responsible for the proper conduct of their men. Many Paharia chiefs refused the allowances , those who accepted lost authority within the community.
(iv)The Paharias withrew deep in the mountains insulating themselves from hostile forces and carrying on a war with the outsiders.The brutal repression shaped their perception of British infiltration into the area.
Why were the water resources of the Vijayanagara Empire developed ? Give reasons.
The reasons for developing water resources of Vijayanagara were:
(i)The natural basin formed by the Tungabhadra which flows in a north –easterly direction hills surrounds this and a number of streams flow down to the river from these hills.
(ii)Embankments were built along the streams to create reservoirs of varying sizes.
(iii)As Vijayanagara was in one of the most arid zones of the peninsula , elaborate water arrangements had to be made to store rain water and conduct it to the city.
(iv)Kamalapuram tank not only irrigated fields nearby but water was also conducted through a channel to the “royal centre”.