Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, military alliances and of balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well, a difference over the best and most appropriate way of organizing political, economic, and social life all over the world.
(i) Why is a war-like situation called Cold War?
(ii) Identify one military pact each signed by each of the two super powers to balance the power rivalries.
(iii) Differentiate between the ideologies represented by the rival blocs.
(i) Because these were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well.
(ii) The pacts: U.S.A led NATO and U.S.S.R led Warshaw Pact
(iii) US represented the ideology capitalism and Liberal democracy while U.S.S.R was committed to socialism and communism.
“Welfare State is getting replaced by market.” Analyse the reason for this change.
(i) Globalisation results in erosion of state capacity.
(ii) It withdraws from many of its welfare functions directed at economic and social well-being.
Why did Indian distance itself from the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union? Explain.
(i) To uphold the sovereignty of the nation and to have independent foreign policy.
(ii) To reduce the differences between the alliances and thereby prevent differences from escalating into a full scale war.
Suggest any two steps to be taken by the government to check pollution and save environment.
The suggestions are:
(i) Plantation of more and more trees.
(ii) Usage of renewable energy.
Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the following questions:
(i) Which country is represented by this mighty soldier?
(ii) Why have the names of so many countries been written on the uniform of the soldier?
(iii) What message does this cartoon convey to the international community?
(ii) Because all the mentioned countries has been invaded by US.
(iii)This cartoon conveys US hegemony as hard power, where American military dominance today is both absolute and relative.
What is meant by the Cuba Missile Crisis?
The leaders of the USSR were apprehensive that the USA would attack Communist ruled Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro. The Soviet Union installed nuclear missiles in Cuba, and decided to convert into a Russian base. This had put US under fire from close range, leading to a situation where clashed seemed imminent.This is known as Cuba Missile Crisis.
Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation also called Western Alliance?
The Western Europe countries had sided with the US to form military alliance, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) so its known as Western Alliance.
What is meant by Hegemony?
Hegemony means being powerful in the sphere of military, economic, political clout and cultural.
Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the U.N.
(i)The move to abolish or modify veto would make the great powers to lose interest in the world body.
(ii)They would do what they pleased outside it and that without their support and involvement the body would be ineffective.
How has the European Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one?
The EU has started to act more as a nation state.
(i) European integration after 1945 was aided by the cold war. Under the Marshall plan, the OEEC was established in 1948 to channel aid to the west European states.
(ii) The process acquired a political dimension with the creation of the European Parliament.
(iii) The foundation was thus laid for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs, and the creation of a single currency.
(iv) While the attempts to have a Constitution for the EU have failed still it has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations.