CBSE Class 12

Pre Boards

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Sample Papers

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 Multiple Choice QuestionsShort Answer Type


What is social loafing?

It has been found, that the individuals work less hard in a group than they do when performing alone. This points to a phenomenon referred to as social loafing. It is a reduction in individual effort when those of other group members. An example of such a task is the game of tug-of-war.



Explain spatial intelligence.

Spatial Intelligence refers to abilities in forming, using, and transforming mental images. The person high on this intelligence can easily represent the spatial world in the mind. Pilots, sailors, sculptors, painters, architects, interior decorators, and surgeons are likely to have highly developed spatial intelligence.



What is communication?

Communication is conscious or unconscious, intentional or unintentional process in which feelings and ideas are expressed as verbal and non¬verbal messages that are sent, received and comprehended.



Explain dissociative amnesia.

  1. Dissociative amnesia is a type of dissociative disorder characterized by extensive but selective memory loss that has no organic causes for example head injury.
  2. Some people cannot remember anything about their past, while others cannot longer recall specific events, people, places or objects.
  3. This disorder is associated with a great deal of stress.


Explain Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) giving examples.

These include being involved in a variety of extreme events such as a fire, train or road accident, robbery, earthquake, tsunami, etc. The effect of these events may occur after some lapse of time and sometimes can last for a very long time after the actual event
in the form of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Professional help will be needed to cope with them.



Describe any three situational factors that lead to aggression.

The following are the three situational factors that lead to aggression.

Learning: Human beings take to aggression due to learning rather than as an inborn tendency.People exhibit aggression because they found it rewarding. For example, hostile aggression allows the aggressive person to get what s/he wants.

Availability of weapons of aggression: It has been found that observing violence leads to a greater aggression. The proximity of weapons of aggression and their immediate availability increase the likelihood of aggression on part of people.

Personality factors: People with low self-esteem and insecurity behave in an aggressive manner to boost their ego. Similarly, people with a high self-esteem behave aggressively and find it as away to look down upon others.



Explain the process of impression formation.

The process of impression formation consists of the following three sub-processes :

  1. Selection: we take into account only some bits of information about the target person.
  2. Organisation: the selected information is combined in a systematic way.
  3. Inference: we draw a conclusion about what kind of person the target is.

Some specific qualities influence impression formation more than other traits do.

Factors affecting the kind of impression formation

  1. Primacy effect:(First impressions are the lasting impressions).First has a stronger effect than the information presented at the end. This is called the primacy effect.
  2. Recency effect: if the perceiver pays attention to all the information, and not merely to the first information, whatever information comes at the end may have a stronger influence. This is known as the recency effect.
  3. Halo effect: We have a tendency to think that a target person who has one set of positive qualities must also be having other specific positive qualities that are associated with the first set. This is known as the halo effect. For example, if we are told that a person is ‘tidy’ and ‘punctual’, we are likely to think that this person must also be ‘hard-working’.



Explain the term crowding.

Crowding refers to a feeling of discomfort due to the presence of too many people or things around an individual.

It gives an experience of physical restriction and the lack of privacy.



Explain the term phobias.

Phobias have irrational fears related to specific objects, people, or situations. Phobias often develop gradually or begin with a generalised anxiety disorder.Phobias can be grouped into three main types, i.e. specific phobias, social phobias, and agoraphobia.



What is meant by technological intelligence?

Technological Intelligence: Technologically advanced societies adopt child-rearing practices that foster skills of generation and abstraction, speed, minimal moves, and mental manipulations among children. These societies promote a type of behaviour, which can be called technological intelligence. Intelligence test developed in western cultures look precisely for these skills in an individual.