NEET Class 12

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Hydrochloric acid in the stomach is secreted by some special type of cells called

  • peptic cells

  • goblet cells

  • oxyntic cells

  • gastric cells


oxyntic cells

Parietal cells or oxyntic cells are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor. These cells are located in the gastric glands found in the lining of the fundus and in the cardia of the stomach.

These cells produce gastric acids.

Peptic cell is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and chymosin.

Goblet cells are found in the epithelium of many organs. Their main role is to secrete mucus in order to protect the mucous membranes.


In horses, rabbits, hares the cellulose gets digested in the

  • caecum

  • stomach

  • appendix

  • rumen



Caecum is a small, pouch-like structure which ends into a tubular structure called vermiform appendix.


Fatty acids are absorbed by the

  • lacteals

  • pylorous

  • colon

  • capillaries



Lacteals are present in villus absorbed the fatty acids and glycerol molecules.

Pylorus is the opening from the stomach into the duodenum. It prevents intestinal contents from re- entering the stomach.

Colon is a part of large intestine. Its function is to reabsorb fluids and process waste products.

Capillary is a small blood vessel. They are the sites of transfer of oxygen and other nutrients from the bloodstream to other tissues in the body.


Food is move along the alimentary canal by the contraction known as

  • peristalsis

  • epiglottis

  • osmosis

  • cyclosis



Peristalsis is a involuntary movements of gut by which food bolus is moved backword. It is least in rectum.


The intestinal juice, succus entericus is secreted by

  • Brunner's gland

  • Kupffer cells

  • crypts of Leiberkuhn

  • goblet cells


crypts of Leiberkuhn

Crypts of Leiberkuhn are multicellular, simple, tubular glands. The secretion of glands collectively called intestinal juices or succus entericus.

Brunner's glands are compound tubular sub- mucosal glands found in the portion of the duodenum.

Kupffer cells are the specialised macrophages loacted in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids.


In Pteridium meiosis takes place at the time of

  • spore formation

  • organ formation in prothallus

  • spore germination

  • gamete formation


spore formation

Spore formed by meiotic division in spore mother cell is the first gametophytic structure in Pteridium.


The pylorous is the constricted part of the alimentary canal which is situated between

  • stomach and duodenum

  • oesophagus and stomach

  • duodenum and ileum

  • ileum and rectum


stomach and duodenum

Pylorous is constricted part of the alimentary canal present between stomach and duodenum. It is a cone- shaped constriction in the gastro- intestinal tract that connects to the duodenum.


Villi are present in

  • large intestine

  • small intestine

  • colon

  • stomach


small intestine

Villi are present in small intestine. They increase surface area which is helpful in absorption.


'Club moss' is the common name of

  • Selaginella

  • Funaria

  • Potamogeton

  • Lycopodium



Lycopodium, a pteridophyte is commonly known as 'club moss'.


Below freezing point, the pepsin

  • becomes over activated

  • gets destroyed

  • remains unaffected

  • gets inactivated


gets inactivated

Pepsin is a non- specific protease. It gets activated at acidic pH (2.0) and is deactivated at neutral or alkaline pH. This is because pepsin moves from the stomach into the duodenum. 

The freezing temperature is a temperature at which liquid becomes solid. Pepsin gets inactivated below freezing point because low temperature inactivates the enzymes and increase the frequency of collisions and the formation of enzyme- substrate complex.