Subject

Biology

Class

NEET Class 12

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 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions

1.

Which of the following does not come under the Class Mammals?

  • Flying fox

  • Hedgehog

  • Manatee

  • Lamprey


D.

Lamprey

Lamprey (or Petromyzon) belongs to class cyclostomata. The lamprey has about 1m long greenish brown, cylindrical body with smooth, scaleless, slimy skin; anterior circular, jawless mouth; a single dorsal naris; seven pairs of circular gill slits; 2 dorsal tins and a tail tin. It's life cycle includes two quite different phases. The larval phase (called ammocoete) is a fresh water sedentary, filter feeding and microphagus creature reminiscent of the lancet. The fish like adult lives in the sea and is parasitic on fishes.


2.

The component of blood which prevents its coagulation in the blood vessels is

  • Haemoglobin

  • Plasma

  • Thrombin

  • Heparin


D.

Heparin

Heparin prevents blood coagulation in the blood vessels. It is secreted by mast cells. It is an anticoagulant, blocking conversion of prothrombin to thrombin.

Haemoglobin is the blood pigment necessary for oxygen transport.

Plasma is the component of blood.

Thrombin is the product of blood clotting.


3.

The shoulder blade is made of

  • clavicle

  • humerus

  • ilium

  • scapula


D.

scapula

Scapula (shoulder blade) is the largest of the bones that make up each half of the pectoral (shoulder) girdle. It is a flat triangular bone, providing anchorage for the muscles of the forelimb and an articulation for the humerus at the glenoid cavity. It is joined to the clavicle (collar bone) in front.

Clavicle is a bone that forms part of the pectoral (shoulder) girdle, linking the scapula (shoulder blade) to the sternum (breast bone). In humans it forms the collar bone and serves as a brace for the shoulders.

Humerus is the long bone of the upper arm which articulates with the scapula (shoulder blade) at the glenoid cavity and with the ulna and radius (via a condyle) at the elbow.

Ilium is the largest of the three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle. The ilium bears a flattened wing of bone that is attached by ligaments to the sacrum.


4.

The black pigment in the eye which reduces the internal reflection is located in

  • retina

  • iris

  • cornea

  • sclerotic


A.

retina

The black pigment in the eye which reduces the internal reflection is known as retina. It is the inner most coat of the eyeball and it is a thin, light sensitive nervous layer. The external coat of the eyeball is known as sclerotic but in front of the sclerotic, there is a transparent connective tissue called cornea. Iris is the pigmented part present in front of choroid.


5.

Which of the following match is correct?

  • Hormone Effect
    Oxytocin Milk ejection hormone
  • Glucagon Decreases blood sugar level
  • Adrenaline Decreases heart rate
  • Thyroxine Decreases BMR


A.

Hormone Effect
Oxytocin Milk ejection hormone

Oxytocin is a hormone that causes both contraction of smooth muscle in the uterus during birth and expulsion of milk from the mammary glands during suckling. It is produced in the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus but is stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.

Glucagon is a hormone, secreted by the α (or A) cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, that increases the concentration of glucose in the blood by stimulating the metabolic breakdown of glycogen. It thus antagonizes the effects of insulin.

Adrenaline (epinephrine) is a hormone produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands, that increases heart activity, improves the power and prolongs the action of muscles, and increases the rate and depth of breathing to prepare the body for 'fright, flight, or fight'. At the same time it inhibits digestion and excretion.

Thyroxine is secreted by thyroid gland. It controls the rate of all metabolic processes in the body and influence physical development and activity of the nervous system.


6.

Which of the following statements regarding glucagon is false?

  • It is secreted by α-cells of Langerhans

  • It acts antagonistically to insulin

  • It decreases blood sugar level

  • The gland responsible for its secretion is heterocrine gland.


C.

It decreases blood sugar level

Glucagon is a hormone, secreted by the α- cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, that increases the concentration of glucose in the blood by stimulating the metabolic breakdown of glycogen. It thus antagonizes the effects of insulin.


7.

"Omnis-cellula-e-cellula" was given by

  • Virchow

  • Hooke

  • Leeuwenhoek

  • Brown


A.

Virchow

Rudolf Virchow was the first to suggest that new cells are formed from the division of the pre-existing cells - "omnis-cellula-e-cellula" i.e. every cell is derived from a previous cell.

Robert Hooke was the first to coin the term "cell" for small structures in a piece of cork under a microscope. His observations were published in a book named Micrographia.

Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe and describe microscopic organisms and living cell. He observed nucleus in RBC of salmon fish and used simple lens and observed nuclei and unicellular organisms including bacteria. In 1676, he described the bacteria and gave the term animalcules. His observations laid the foundations for the science of bacteriology and microbiology. Robert Brown ( 1831) described and named nucleus.


8.

Hearing impairment affects which part of brain?

  • Frontal lobe

  • Parietal lobe

  • Temporal lobe

  • Cerebellum


C.

Temporal lobe

Temporal lobe is one of the main divisions of the cerebral cortex in each hemisphere of the brain, lying at the side within the temple of the skull and separated from the frontal lobe by a cleft, the lateral sulcus. Areas of the cortex in this lobe are concerned with the appreciation of sound and spoken language.


9.

Which of the following is an eye disease?

  • Hepatitis

  • Measles

  • Glaucoma

  • Bronchitis


C.

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a condition in which loss of vision occurs because of an abnormally high pressure in the eye. This is also known as primary glaucoma and is of two types- acute and chronic simple.

  1. Acute or Angle- closure Glaucoma- There is an abrupt rise in pressure due to sudden closure of the angle between cornea and iris.
  2. Chronic Simple or Open- angle Glaucoma- Pressure increases gradually, without producing painand the visual loss is insidious.

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by viruses, toxic substance or immunological abnormalities.

Measles or Rubeola disease is an acute infectious eruptive viral disease of childhood caused by specific virus of the group myxoviruses. It is the infection of respiratory tract and conjunctiva which is transmitted by contact, fomite and droplet methods.

Bronchitis is the inflammation of the bronchi.


10.

Which match is true?

  • Vitamin deficiency disease Vitamin Source
    Severe bleeding Tocopherol Milk, egg
  • Anaemia Ascorbic acid Lemon, orange
  • Night blindness Retinol Carrot, milk
  • Sterility Calciferol Milk, butter

C.

Night blindness Retinol Carrot, milk

Night blindness is the inability to see in dim light or at night. It is due to disorder of the cells in the retina that are responsible for vision in dim light and can result from dietary deficiency of vitamin A (retinol).

Name Sources Effect of deficiency
Vitamin C/ Ascorbic acid Citrus fruits such as lemon, orange etc. Green vegetables, Potatoes etc. Scurvy is characterised by wound healing an dgrowth retardation etc.
Vitamin D/ Ergocalciferol and Cholecalciferol Synthesized in skin cells in sunlight. Also found in butter, liver, kidneys, egg yolk etc. Rickets, a disorder of children of 6 months to 2 years.
Vitamin E/ Tocopherol Green vegetables, oils, egg yolk, wheat, animal tissues Reversible sterility in female.