Subject

Biology

Class

NEET Class 12

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 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions

1.

Melatonin is produced from

  • pineal gland

  • adrenal gland

  • parathyroid gland

  • ovary


A.

pineal gland

Pineal gland secretes a hormone called melatonin. This hormone plays a very important role in the regulation of a 24 hour (diurnal) rhythm of our body. It also influences metabolism, pigmentation, the menstrual cycle as well as our defense capability.

Adrenal gland is composed of two types of tissues, adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex. Adrenal medulla, secretes hormones adrenaline or epinephrine and noradrenaline or norepinephrine. Adrenal cortex secretes many hormones called as corticoids.

The parathyroid glands secrete a peptide hormone called parathyroid hormone. This hormone increases the Ca2+ levels in the blood.

Ovary produces two groups of steroid hormones called oestrogen and progesterone.


2.

What is the stroke volume of an adult human heart?

  • 50 mL

  • 70 mL

  • 90 mL

  • 100 mL


B.

70 mL

During a cardiac cycle, each ventricle pumps out approximately 70 mL of blood which is called stoke volume. This stroke volume when multiplied by the heart rate (number of beats per min) gives the cardiac output.


3.

Which one of the following animals is uricotelic?

  • Lizard

  • Camel

  • Toad

  • Rohu fish


A.

Lizard

Birds, lizards, snakes, terrestrial insects, snails excrete nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of pellet or paste with a minimum loss of water and are called uricotelic animals.

Camels, toads, cartilaginous fish (rohu fish), some bony fish, adult amphibians and mammals excrete urea and are called ureotelic animals.


4.

Which hormone is responsible for reabsorption of water in kidney?

  • ADH

  • STH

  • ACTH

  • GTH


A.

ADH

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or vasopressin is the hormone responsible for reabsorption of water from kidney tubules resulting in concentrated urine. It helps in regulating the body's retention of water.

STH or somatotropin or somatotrophic hormone refers to the growth hormone produved naturally in animals. 

ACTH or adrenocorticotropic hormone is a hormone produced in the anterior part of brain. It regulates the levels of the steroid hormone cortisol.

GTH or gonadotropic hormone are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates. It regulates normal growth, sexual development and reproductive function.


5.

Zymogenic cells of gastric gland secrete

  • pepsinogen

  • trypsin

  • pepsin

  • chymotrypsin


A.

pepsinogen

The peptic cells or chief cells or zymogenic cells of gastric gland secrete pepsinogen. The enzyme pepsinogen has no proteolytic activity. It is the inactive precursor of pepsin. The proenzyme pepsinogen on exposure to HCl gets converted into the active enzyme pepsin which is the proteolytic enzyme of the stomach.

Pancreatic acinar cells (exocrine part of pancreas) produce pancreatic juice that contains protein-digesting enzymes, namely trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase and carbohydrases like pancreatic a-amylase and lipase.


6.

Wildlife Protection Act India was implemented in the year

  • 1982

  • 1988

  • 1972

  • 1970


C.

1972

Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants. and animals species. It establishes schedules of protected plant and animals species, hunting or harvesting these species was largely out cawed.


7.

Which one of the following combination of all three fatty acids are essential for human beings?

  • Oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid

  • Palmitic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid

  • Oleic acid, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid

  • Linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid


D.

Linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid

Fatty acids, such as linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acids contain two or more cis carbon-carbon double bonds and are referred to as polyunsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids are required nutrients for humans and must be part of a healthy diet. 

They are termed essential fatty acids. These cannot be synthesised by human beings but are essential to human health. They must be consumed in adequate amounts specially in the form of ingested plant derived foods.


8.

The epithelium found in the inner linings of stomach and intestine is

  • columnar

  • squamous

  • stratified

  • pseudostratified


A.

columnar

The columnar epithelium is found in the lining of stomach and intestine and help in secretion and absorption. It is composed of a single layer of tall and slender cells.

The squamous epithelium is made of a single thin layer of flattened cells with irregular boundaries. They are found in the walls of blood vessels and air sacs of lungs.

Stratified epithelium are closely packed sheets of epithelial cells arranged in layers over the external surface of the body and lining mostof the hollow structures like alveoli and oesophagus.

Pseudostratified epithelium is a special type of simple epithelium that consists of a falsely stratified single layer of epithelial cells resting on a basement membrane.


9.

Which one of the following is wrong for meiosis?

  • It leads to formation of sister chromatids

  • It occurs in diploid cell

  • It occurs in haploid cell

  • It occurs by splitting of centromeres and separation of sister chromatids


C.

It occurs in haploid cell

Meiosis is a specialised and much complicated type of cell division, occurring only in the formation of haploid sex cells (sperm and ovum). The gametes, after the process of fertilisation, restore the original diploid number by forming the zygote.


10.

Which one of the following cocci appears like grapes under microscope?

  • Streptococci

  • Diplococci

  • Staphylococci

  • Pneumococci


C.

Staphylococci

Staphylococci are species of Gram-positive bacteria. It can cause a wide variety of infections in humans and other animals through infection or the production of toxins. When viewed under microscope, they appear in  grape-like clusters.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram- positive coccus or spherical bacteria. 

Diplococci is a bacterium that occurs as pairs of cocci. It is a round bacterium that occurs in the form of two joined cells.

Pneumococci is a type of streptococcus bacteria.