State two differences between a consumer and a producer.

A producer synthesises its own food by trapping light energy (sunlight). They trap solar energy and mak it available to the consumers. For eg- green plants 
A consumer is an organism which cannot synthesise its own food and directly or indirectly obtains its food from producers (green plants). For eg- herbivores and carnivores.

What happens when an organism dies?

When an organism dies, the decomposers like bacteria and fungi in the soil or water, act upon the dead organisms and breakdown the complex organic substances into simple inorganic compounds which go into the soil and can be used up once more by the plants.


What are various components of the ecosystem?

Components of the ecosystem are -:
i. Biotic components - which comprises of all the living organisms like plants, animals and microorganisms.
ii. Abiotic components comprising of the non-living components like temperature, rainfall, wind, soil and minerals.



An aquarium is known as an artificial ecosystem. Why?

An aquarium comprises of green plants, fish and other aquatic animals. Water, sand (or gravel etc.), temperature, light, etc. are also present the abiotic factors. Aquatic green plants that are added are the producers. Fishes are the consumers. The green plants give out oxygen which is taken up by the fishes. Animals give out carbon dioxide which plants utilise in photosynthesis. Animals excreta is decomposed by the decomposers and the simple compounds produced are taken up by the plants. Thus, an aquarium is self-perpetuating functional unit. Therefore, it is known as ecosystem. Since the fishes and plants and others are added by man, so it is known as artificial ecosystem.

Give examples of herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and parasites.

Herbivores: Camel, Deer, Cow, Rabbit, Elephant.
Carnivores: Lion, Tiger, Leopard, Snakes, Vultures, Eagles.
Omnivores:  Humans, Most Birds.
Decomposers: Bacteria and Fungi.