What do you mean by narcotics?


Narcotics are drugs like morphine, heroin which are used by athlete to reduce pain and anxiety to improve sports performance.


What is out-of-competition testing?


This is the testing when the athlete is not taking part in a competition.


What are the physical methods of doping? Define methods prohibited in sports.


Blood Doping: Blood doping is a method to increase the count of red blood cells, which is done by the use of wrong banned substances. There are two methods under this.

Autologous blood doping: Two units of blood are taken some weeks prior to competition. Then the blood is frozen until one or two days before the competition when it is injected into the athlete. This is called autologous blood doping.

Homologous blood doping: The injection of fresh blood, taken from a second person, straight into the athlete is called homologous blood doping. This improves the oxygen-carrying capacity to the muscles by increasing the count of red blood cells (RBC) so the muscle endurance is increased which improves the aerobic capacity and sports performance.

Gene Doping: Gene doping is the manipulation of cells or genes to enhance the body's sports performance. It can be used to improve the work function of normal healthy cells. Gene therapy plays an important role in the growth and development of muscles and bones. It also speeds up the person to repair of the injured muscle tendons and ligaments.

Chemical and Physical Manipulation: Any tampering with the samples during doping control during or after any competition is prohibited.


How many types of doping are there?


There are three types of doping:
(i) use of drugs
(ii) Blood doping
(iii)Gene doping


What do you mean by doping?


Doping means the use of banned substances like drugs and steroids by a sports person to improve his performance.