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Biomolecules

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Class 10 Class 12
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What is meant by tertiary structure of proteins ?

Tertiary structure is the three-dimensional structure of a protein or nucleic acid. The folding of the the protein chain upon itself gives rise to the tertiary structure of the protein. It is very necessary for the biological activity of the protein. 


 

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Proteins have primary structure. If you are given a method to know which amino acid is at either of the two termini (ends) of a protein, can you connect this information to purify or homogeneity of a protein?

Yes, the arrangement of amino acids ie. the positional information in a protein-which is the first amino acid, which is second, and so on is called the primary structure of a protein. The primary structure is very necessary for the proper functioning of the protein because the sequence of amino acids are used as a code for the synthesis of different protein. Any change in the primary structure will give rise to a incorrect protein. Therefore if we know the sequence of a particular protein we can check the purity by comparing its sequence to the known sequence by experimental method. 
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Find and write down structure of 10 interesting small molecular weight biomolecules. Find if there is any industry which manufactures the compounds by isolation. Find out who are the buyers.

Structual formulae for ten small molecules. Find and write down structure of 10 interesting small molecular weight biomolecules. Find if there is any industry which manufactures the compounds by isolation. Find out who are the buyers.

PYRIMIDINES

Purines and pyrimidines are manufactured by isolation. They are used by various laboratories, hospitals and research centres.

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Explain composition of triglyceride.


The triglycerides are made up of glycerol and three fatty acids. It is an ester of glycerol and fatty acids. The three fatty acids present in the triglycerides, may be same or different. 




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Illustrate a glycosidic, peptide and a phosphodiester bond.

(1) Glycosidic - Monosaccharides in a polysaccharide chain are linked by a glycosidic bond. The bond is formed between two carbon atoms of two adjacent monosaccharides with loss of a water molecule. 


(2) Peptide bond: Amino acids in a polypeptide or protein are linked by a peptide bond, which is formed when the carboxyl group ie. COOH of one amino acid reacts with the amino (–NH2) group of the next amino acid with the elimination of a water molecule . 



(3) Phosphodiester bond : In a nucleic acid the phosphate group and sugar are joined together by phosphodiester bonds. An bonds is formed between phosphate and pentose sugar molecule in a nucleotide. The bond is called phosphodiester bond because there is an ester bond on either side. 

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