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Cell Cycle and Cell Division

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Class 10 Class 12
 Namethe five phases of of Prophase I.

The five phases of prophase 1 are
i. Leptotene
ii. Zygotene
iii. Pachytene
iv. Diplotene
v.  Diakinesis. 

How does cytokinesis in plant cells differ from that in animal cells?

Cytokinesis in animal cell

Cytokinesis in plant cell

1. It occurs by furrow method.

2. The constriction in plasmalemma is formed by contraction of microfilaments.

3.Cleavage starts at the periphery and then moves inward, dividing the cell into two parts.

1. It occurs by cell plate method.

2. No constriction is formed.

3. Cell plate formation starts at the centre of the cell and grows outward, toward the lateral walls.



List the main differences between meiosis and mitosis.

Mitosis Meiosis
1.  Equational division. Chromosome number remains the same in the daughter cells.  

1. Reduction division. Chromosome number is resuced to half in the daughter cell.

2. Occurs in somatic cells

2. Occurs in germ cells. 

3. Occurs in both sexually and asexually reproducing organisms.

3. Occurs only in sexually reproducing organisms.
4. No crossing over takes place.

4. Crossing over takes place during pachytene stage.

5. Prohase is simple and not divided into sub stages. 5. Prohase I of meiosis I is complex and has 5 stages.

What is the significance of meiosis?

Meiosis is the reduction division the reduction in the amount of genetic material.

Significance of meiosis

1. Meiosis maintains the chromosome number from generation to generation. It reduces the chromosome number to half so that the process of fertilisation can restore the original number in the zygote.

2. It has an evolutionary importance as it allows variations to occur. The process of cross-over and the random distribution of homologous chromosomes between daughter cells result in variation in the genetic make-up of the cells. Variations play an important role in evolution.

3. Chromosomal mutations are brought about by the introduction of certain inheritable changes which may be advantageous for an individual.


What is the average cell cycle span for a mammalian cell ?

24 hours is an average duration. The cell division phase lasts only for one hour while interphase lasts for 95% of the duration of the cycle. 

Describe the events taking place during interphase. 

Interphase is the resting stage of the cell cycle. It covers 95% of the total duration of a cell cycle. It involves a series of changes that prepare a cell for division. It is the period during which the cell experiences growth and DNA replication in an orderly manner. Interphase is divided into three phases.

(i) Gphase

(ii) S phase

(iii) Gphase

Gphase - It is the interval between mitosis and initiation of DNA replication. It is the stage during which the cell grows and prepares its DNA for replication. In this phase, the cell is metabolically active but there is no replication of the DNA.

S phase - It is known as the synthesis phase as it is the stage during which DNA synthesis occurs. In this phase, the amount of DNA (per cell) doubles, but the chromosome number remains the same.

Gphase - In this phase, the cell continues to grow and prepares itself for the division. The proteins and RNA required for mitosis are synthesised during this stage.