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Excretory Products and their Elimination

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Write a note on artificial kidney.

Artificial kidney or Haemodialysis : It is the artificial removal of the nitrogenous wastes from the body. It is used in those patients whose kidney tubules do not function properly so that the metabolic wastes start accumulating in the blood and they need to be eliminated frequently. It can be explained in following points.

1. In the process, the blood of the patient is pumped from one of the main arteries and cooled to 0°C.

2. It is then mixed with an anticoagulant heparin and passed through cellophane tube.

3. This cellophane tube is a semipermeable membrane which allows only small molecules like urea, uric acid, creatinine and mineral ions to pass out but the macromolecules like proteins are not able to pass through it.

Fig. Diagram of Artificial Kidney

4. This cellophane tube is suspended in a salt solution which is isotonic with the blood plasma. Now, as the blood flows through this tube metabolic wastes are filtered out of the blood in the salt solution.

5. The purified blood is mixed with antiheparin to restore its normal coaguability and is then pumped into the body through a vein.

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What is Bowman's capsule?

The double walled cup like structure present at the starting of the renal tubule is Bowman's capsule. It encloses the glomerulus capsule.
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What is glomerulonephritis ?

Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of glomeruli of the kidney.
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What is the ultimate method for the correction of acute renal failure?

Kidney transplant.
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What is uremia ?

Uremia is the accumulation of urea in the blood due to the malfunctioning of the kidneys. The urea accumulation is harmful and may lead to kidney failure.

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Name three uricotelic animals.

The uricotelic animals are
1. Birds
2. Reptiles
3. Insects

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