What measures are taken for disposal of solid wastes ?

The various measures taken for disposal of Solid Wastes are:

1. Burning of municipal solid wastes to reduce their volume. 

2. Use of sanitary landfills instead of open-burning dumps.

3. Incineration of municipal wastes and using the heat emitted to generate electricity.

4. Recycling of various components of e-waste.

5. Categorisation and sorting of wastes into three categories called (a) bio-degradable, (b) recyclable and (c) the non-biodegradable.

6. Reducing the amount of garbage and the use of non-biodegradable materials like plastic.



List various measures for control of noise pollution.

 Noise Pollution can be controlled in the following ways:

1. Construction of sound-proof rooms for noisy machines in industries.

2. Radios and transistors should be kept at low volume.

3. Use of horns with jarring sound should be banned.

4. Noise producing industries, aerodromes, railway stations, etc. should be shifted away from the inhabited areas.

5. Proper laws should be enforced to check the misuse of loudspeakers and public announcement systems.

6. Need to enforce silence zone around institutions like educational institutes, residential areas, hospitals, etc.

7. Sound absorbing techniques like acoustical furnishing should be extensively employed.

8. Noise should be deflected away from the receiver by using mechanical devices.

9. Green muffler scheme that involves growing green plants along roadsides to reduce noise pollution should be followed and encouraged.

10. Stringent laws for permissible sound-levels of crackers should be made and followed.


List any three laws passed by Indian government to control  pollution.


Three laws passed by the Indian government to control pollution are:

1. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 which was passed to enforce to protect and improve the quality of our environment (air, water and soil).

2.The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. This act deals with the preservation of water quality and the control of water pollution with a concern for the detrimental quality of water pollutants on human health and also on the biological world.

3. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981. It deals with the preservation of air quality and the control of air pollution with a concern for the detrimental effects of air pollutants on human health and also on the biological world.




What are chlorofluorocarbons and aerosols ? Write the sources and mechanism of the effects of chloroflorocarbons.

Chloroflorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. They are used as refrigerants . 

Aerosols.  a dispersion of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols are released from jet propellants.

CFCs are released by refrigerators and air conditioners.  CFCs are very harmful to the atmosphere as they deplete the ozone layer. They are discharged in the lower layer of the atmosphere from where they move upwards towards the stratosphere. In the stratosphere they release chlorine atoms on reaction with UV rays. This Cl act as catalysts and degrade ozone releasing molecular oxygen.  Cl atoms are not consumed in the reaction and thus have permanent and cotinuing effect on ozone levels.


What measures do you suggest to control pollution from automobile exhaust ?

The measures to control pollution from automobile exhaust are :

(1) Use of efficient engines to reduce the amount unburnt hydrocarbons emission .

(2) Use of catalytic converter filter in the vehicle that reduce the amount of toxic gases.

(3) Use of good quality of fuel.

(4) Use of unleaded petrol to reduce the load of lead in the exhaust.

(5) Use of CNG (compressed natural gas) to  lower the toxic contaminants in the exhaust.