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Rise of Popular Movements

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Politics In India Since Independence

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Political Science

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Class 10 Class 12

Describe any four demands made by the Bharatiya Kisan Union after 1980.

Four demands:

(i) The BKU demanded higher goverment floor prices for sugarcane and wheat

(ii) Abolition of restrictions on the inter-state movements of farm produce

(iii) Guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates

(iv) Waiving of repayments due on loans to farmers and the provision of a goverment pension for farmers.


What is meant by Chipko Movement? When did it start and where? What is the Significance of this movement in the conservation of the environment?


‘Towards the end of the 1980s, five major changes took place in Indian political system.’ In the light of this statement, examine any three changes.

Chipko movement was a protest movement which used a novel tactic of hugging the trees to prevent them from being cut down.

It started in early 1973 in Uttarakhand.

The movement achieved a victory when the goverment issued a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan regions for fifteen years, until the green cover was fully restored.


The major changes took place in Indian political system are:

(i) Rise of Mandal Issue-The Mandal Issue started with the National Front Government’s decision to implement the recommendation of Mandal Commission that jobs in the Central government should be reserved for OBCs.This led to violent anti Mandal protests in different parts of the county.

(ii) New Economic Policy-This is known as the initiation of the structural adjustment programmes. Started by Rajiv Gandhi, these changes first become visible in 1991 and radically changed the direction that the Indian economy had pursued since independence.

(iii) Demolition of Babri Masjid or Ayodhya dispute-Ayodhya dispute started with the demolition of the disputed structure of Babri Masjid at Ayodhya in December 1992. This event symbolised and triggered various changes in politics of the country and intensified debate about the nature of Indian nationalism and secularism.


Suppose you are an important leader of the Farmers‟ agitation. The government authorities ask you to present any three demands on behalf of the farmers. On priority basis, which three demands will you make? Support your demands with appropriate arguments.


In 2014 elections, people have voted for a stable government at the Centre. Do you think that the era of coalition has ended? Support your answer with suitable arguments.

(This depends on perceptions of the leader.)

These demands can be:

(i) Free electricity for agriculture

(ii) Minimum Support Price for the agricultural produce should be enhanced.

(iii) Agricultural insurance for all the farmers.

(iv) No ban on movement of agricultural products from one state to other states.


This can be both yes and no. If yes:

(i) People have given absolute majority to a national party B.J.P.

(ii) People were fed up with the previous experience of coalition governments led by scam ridden Congress.

(iii) Regional parties like NC, B.S.P, DMK have been punished by voters by not giving a single seat.

If no:

(i) Regional parties still have relevance and they are ruling in different states.

(ii) The present government still depends and needs the support of different regional parties to get the bills passed in the Parliament.

(iii) At present, the Congress party is trying to unite the opposition parties and regional parties against the ruling party with the purpose to regain power.


Describe any six factors which made the farmers’ movement run by Bharatiya Kisan Union as the most successful popular movement.


Which three lessons do we learn from regional aspirations and their accommodation as an integral part of democratic politics ? Describe.

The factors: 

i. Kisan Andolan led by BKU was one of the most disciplined agitation.

ii. BKU used traditional Caste Panchayats to bring them together on economic issues.

iii. BKU use clan networks for generating funds and resources.

iv. The demands raised by BKU were very dear to farmers and were readily accepted by the farmers.

v. BKU kept itself a political and worked as a pressure group.

vi. BKU used the pressure tactics and showed the strength and power of the farmers.


Regional aspirations are very important part of democratic politics and expression of regional issues is a normal phenomenon.

i. Democratic negotiations are the best way to resolve the regional issues. Regional matters can be resolved by power sharing within constitutional framework.

ii. Regional balance and economic development decrease the feeling of regional discrimination. Therefore the problem of backwardness of regions should be addressed at a priority.

iii. Constitutional provisions already incorporated in resolving regional issues. As the sixth schedule of the constitution allows different tribes complete autonomy of preserving their practices and customary laws. Federalism should be given respect in true sense.


Give any three suitable arguments in favour of “India being a staunch supporter of the decolonization process and in firm opposition to racialism”.

(i) Under the leadership of Nehru India convened the Asian Relation Conference in
March 1947. India was a staunch supporter of the decolonization process and firmly opposed racism especially apartheid in South Africa.

(ii) India made earnest efforts for the early realization of an international conference in 1949 to support its freedom struggle.

(iii)The Afro – Asian Conference held in the Indonesian city of Bandung in 1955, commonly known as Bandung Conference, marked the zenith of India’s engagement with newly independent Asian and African nations. The Bandung Conference later led to the establishment of the NAM.


Who were Dalit Panthers? Describe their main activities.

  Dalit Panthers were a militant organization of the Dalit Youth which was formed in Maharashtra in 1972. 

  Main Activities of Dalit Panthers.

(i) Their activities always centered around fighting against atrocities on


(ii) Their main agenda was to destroy the caste-system.

(iii) To build an All India Organization of all the oppressed section.

(iv) It provided a platform for the Dalit educated youth to use their

creativity as a protest activity.

(v) Dalit writers protested against the brutalities of the caste system.

(vi) Dalit Panthers got involved in electoral compromises to strengthen

their position.