C.was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
(a) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy.
(b) The main strength of social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
(c) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.
(i) The forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for agricultural tools.
(ii) The villagers protested against the practice of commercial logging that the government had permitted. The government had allotted the same patch of land to a sports manufacturer for commercial use.
(iii) There were larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation of the region. The villagers demanded that no forest-exploiting contracts should be given to outsiders and local communities should have effective control over natural resources like land, water and forests.
(iv) People demanded that the government should provide low cost materials to small industries and ensure development of the region without disturbing the ecological balance.
(v) There was issue of landless forest workers. The movement demanded guarantees of minimum wage.
(vi) The forest contractors doubled up as supplier of alcohol to men. Women were against this habit of alcoholism and held sustained agitations against it. They joined the movement and broadened the agenda of the movement to cover other social issues.
Impact of the movement : (i) The government issued a ban on felling of trees in the Himalayan regions for fifteen years, until the green cover was fully restored.
(ii) The Chipko Movement became a symbol of many such movements which emerged in different parts of the country during the 1970s and later.
(i) Higher government floor prices for sugarcane and wheat;
(ii) Abolition of restrictions on the inter-state movement of farm produce;
(iii) Guaranteed supply of electricity at reasonable rates;
(iv) Waiving of repayments due on loans to farmers;
(v) The provision of a government pension for farmers.
The BKU operated as a pressure group in politics with its strength of sheer numbers. The organisation did manage to get some of their economic demands accepted. The farmers’ movement became one of the most successful social movements of the eighties in this respect.
(i) Increased consumption of a locally brewed alcohol-arrack-by men. The habit of alcoholism had taken deep roots and was ruining the physical and mental health of village people.
(ii) It effected the rural economy. Indebtedness grew with increasing scales of consumption of alcohol and men remained absent from their jobs due to effects of alcoholism.
(iii) There was increase in crime because contractors of alcohol engaged in crime for securing their monopoly over the arrack trade.
(iv)It resulted in the collapse of the family economy and the women bore the brunt of violence from the males in the family, particularly by the husband. The issue of domestic violence was discussed openly.
(v)Attention was drawn towards the nexus between crime and politics around the business of arrack because the state government collected huge revenues by way of taxes and therefore was not willing to impose on ban on sale of arrack. This issue was addressed in the agitation against arrack.
(vi) Attention was drawn towards other issues such as the custom of dowry, sexual abuse at work and public places and inequality in personal and property laws.