(i) Indian politics had a history of popular struggles.
(ii) Right to publicly protest against the goverment.
(iii)Mostlyw peaceful and non-violent agitations in Bihar and Gujarat.
(iv) No cases were registered against most of the detainees.
(v) No concern about law and order were expressed by the Home Ministry.
(vi) Enough routine powers with the government to deal with the situation.
(i) Indira Gandhi emerged as a towering leader with tremendous popularity.
(ii) The party competition became bitter and polarised.
(iii) There was tension in the relationship between the government and the judiciary.
(iv) The politics was becoming too personalised and the governmental authority was being converted into personal authority as happened during the emergency.
(i) The Bangladesh crisis had put a heavy strain on India’s economy. About eight million people crossed over the East Pakistan border into India. This was followed by war with Pakistan.
(ii) After the Indo-Pak war of 1965, the US government had stopped all aid to India.
(iii) In the international market the manifold increase in oil prices led to an all-round increase in prices of commodities. Such level of inflation caused much hardship to the people.
(iv) Industrial growth was low and unemployment was very high, particularly in rural areas.
(v) In order to reduce expenditure, the government froze the salaries of its employees. This caused further dissatisfaction among the goverment employees.
(vi) Food grain output declined by 8 per cent.
|A. Justice Jagmohan Lai Singh||(i) Chief Justice of India|
|B. Justice A.N. Ray||(ii) Allahabad High Court|
|C. Jayaprakash Narayan||(iii) Fast in Gujarat|
|D. Morarji Desai||(iv) March to Parliament|
A.Justice Jagmohan Lai Singh
(i)Allahabad High Court
B.Justice A.N. Ray
(ii)Chief Justice of India
(iii)March to Parliament
(iv)Fast in Gujarat