What is creativity?

(i) Creativity refers to the ability to thinks in novel and unsual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems.

(ii) Creativity is reality-oriented, appropriate, constructive and socially desirable.

(iii) Individual's vary in terms of the level and the areas in which they exhibit creativity.

(iv) It may be related to simple occupations and may be higher levels i.e., related to the artists, the scientists, the inventors etc., however they are not working at the same level.

(v) Creativity may be doing things differently. It is working on what has already been done earlier by way of modifications, by putting things in new perspectives or to new use.

(vi) It is determined by both heredity and environment. Limits of the creative potential are set by heredity. Environmental factors stimulate the development, e.g., Motivations, commitment, family support, peer influences, opportunities etc.


Differentiate between simultaneous processing and Successive processing?

(i) The concepts are introduced by J.P. Das, Kirbi and Nagliery in their PASS model of intelligence.

(ii) Simultaneous Processing takes place when one perceives relations amongst various concepts and integrate them into meaningful patterns for comprehension.

(iii) For e.g., Raven's progressive matrices (RPM Test) — a design is presented from which a part has been removed. Subject has to choose one of the six options that appropriately complete the design.

(iv) Simultaneous processing helps in grasping the meaning and the relationship between the given variables.

(v) Successive Processing takes place when one is able to arrange all the information serially.

(vi) Each step in the series helps to understand the next step, i.e., one recall leads to another recall — e.g., learning of digits and letters and multiplication tables.


What are the uses of aptitude tests?

Aptitude refers to special capacity or capacities. Tests designed to measure capacities, i.e., to predict what one can accomplish with training are called aptitude tests. They serve some useful purposes:

1. Aptitude tests measure mere specific abilities: Mechanical aptitude tests measure various types of eye-hand co-ordination.

2. Selection: Aptitude tests are used for employee selection. They test specific abilities required for a particular job.

3. Career guidance: Aptitude tests also provide career guidance to the student. Aptitude tests help them to select a proper career by discovering the abilities they possess.

4. Prediction: Aptitude tests are used to predict success in various specific professions.



Differentiate between technological and integral intelligence.

(i) Technological Intelligence: It is Western view of intelligence which includes following skills:

— Generalization

— Abstraction

— Speed

— Minimal moves

— Creativity

— Mental manipulation. The concept of technological intelligence is based on urbanization, schooling, technological advancement and child rearing practising.

(ii) Integral Intelligence: It is identified as Indian view of intelligence. It includes following competencies:

(iii) Cognitive capacity: Sensitivity to context, understanding discrimination, problem solving, and effective communication.

(iv) Social competence: Respect for social order, commitment to elders, the young and the needy, concern about others, recognizing others' perspectives.

(v) Emotional competence: Self-regulation and self-monitoring of emotions, honesty, politeness, good conduct and self-evaluation.

(vi) Entrepreneurial competence: Commitment, persistence, patience, hard work, vigilance and goal-directed behaviours.