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Class 10 Class 12

How for India development is a mixed bag of opportunities as well as neglect and deprivations? Explain. 

Development is a mixed bag of opportunities as well as neglect and deprivations for India:

(i)There are a few areas like the metropolitan centres and other developed enclaves that have all the modern facilities available to a small section of its population.

(ii)At the other extreme of it, there are large rural areas and the slums in the urban areas that do not have basic amenities like potable water, education and health infrastructure available to majority of this population.

(iii)The situation is more alarming if one looks at the distribution of the development opportunities among different sections of our society. It is a wellestablished fact that majority of the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, landless agricultural labourers, poor farmers and slums dwellers, etc. are the most marginalised lot.

(iv)A large segment of female population is the worst sufferers among all. It is also equally true that the relative as well as absolute conditions of the majority of these marginalised sections have worsened with the development happening over the years.

(v)Consequently, vast majority of people are compelled to live under abject poverty and subhuman conditions.

Discuss the Human Development Report 1993 of UNDP.

Human Development Report 1993:

(i)The UNDP in its Human Development Report 1993, tried to amend some of the implicit biases and prejudices which were entrenched in the concept of development.

(ii)People’s participation and their security were the major issues in the Human Development Report of 1993.

(iii)It also emphasised on progressive democratisation and increasing empowerment of people as minimum conditions for human development.

(iv)The report recognised greater constructive role of ‘Civil Societies’ in bringing about peace and human development.

(v)The civil society should work for building up opinion for reduction in the military expenditure, demobilisation of armed forces, transition from defence to production of basic goods and services and particularly disarmament and reduction in the nuclear warheads by the developed countries. 


Describe the features of literacy in India.

The features:

(i)Overall literacy in India was approximately 65. 4 per cent in 2001whereas female literacy is 54.16 per cent. 

(ii)Total literacy as well as female literacy is higher than the national average in most of the states from south India.

(iii)There are wide regional disparities in literacy rate across the states of India. There is a state like Bihar which has very low literacy and there are states like Kerala and Mizoram which have literacy rates of 90.92 and 88.49 per cent respectively.

(iv)Apart from the spatial variations, percentage of literates in the rural areas and among the marginalised sections of our society such as females, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, agricultural labourers, etc. is very low.

(v)It is worth mentioning here that though, there has been improvement in the percentage of literates among the marginalised section yet the gap between the richer and the marginalised sections of the population has increased over the years.

Differentiate between human development and economic development.

Human Development

Economic Development

(i)Human development means the well-being of people in its broad perspective e.g., economic, social and cultural.

(i)Concept of economic development exclusively focus on the increase in income.

(ii)Human development involves in raising the level of human well-being.

(ii)Economic growth and productivity can be assessed with the help of G.N.P. and per capita income.

(iii)Human development cannot be achieved with economic growth.

(iii)Economic development depends upon the development of technology and education.

(iv)The development must be woven around people not people around development.

(iv)Economic growth can be achieved through the human skill and knowledge by utilising the natural resources.

(v)People must have the opportunity to invest in improving their health, education and training.

(v)Economic growth is essential for human well being.


Explain the views expressed by the Neo-Malthusians, environmentalists and radical ecologists with regard to development.

The views expressed by the Neo-Malthusians, environmentalists and radical ecologists are explained below:

(i)They believe that for a happy and peaceful social life proper balance between population and resources is a necessary condition.

(ii)According to these thinkers, the gap between the resources and population has widened after eighteenth century.

(iii)There have been marginal expansion in the resources of the world in the last three hundred years but there has been phenomenal growth in the human population.

(iv)Development has only contributed in increasing the multiple uses of the limited resources of the world while there has been enormous increase in the demand for these resources.

(v)Therefore, the prime task before any development activity is to maintain parity between population and resources.