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Population - Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

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India People And Economy

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12

Name the state of India with highest literacy rate as per 2011 census.



Explain with examples the occupational structure of India’s population.

The occupational structure of India’s population:

(i) The population of India according to their economic status is divided into three groups, namely; main workers, marginal workers and non-workers.

(ii) It is observed that in India, the proportion of workers (both main and marginal) is only
39.8 per cent (2011) leaving a vast majority of about 60 per cent as non-workers.

(iii) The proportion of working population, of the states and Union Territories show a moderate variation from about 39.6 per cent in Goa to about 49.9 per cent in Daman and Diu.

(iv) The work participation rate tends to be higher in the areas of lower levels of economic development since number of manual workers are needed to perform the subsistence or near subsistence economic activities.

(v) The occupational composition of India’s population (which actually means engagement of an individual in farming, manufacturing trade, services or any kind of professional activities) shows a large proportion of primary sector workers compared to secondary and tertiary sectors.


Define the term ‘growth of population’. Describe the third (III) phase of growth of population in India.

Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time.

Third (III) phase of growth of population :

(i) The decades are 1951-1981 .

(ii) This is the period of population explosion in India .

(iii) It was caused by a rapid fall in the mortality rate but a high fertility rate of population in the country.

(iv) It is in this period, after the Independence, that developmental activities were introduced through a centralised planning process and economy started showing up ensuring the improvement of living condition of people at large.


“An uneven distribution of population suggests a close relationship between population and physical and socio-economic factors.” Support the statement with suitable examples.

Population density is closely related to physical and socio-economic factors-

Dense population in UP, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana, Kerala is due to flat and fertile plains, favourable climate, water availability and socio-economic factors.

Moderate density is seen in Odisha, Assam, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu etc. due to possibilities of agriculture, industrial development and favourable climate to some extent.

Sparse population of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, North-East States is due to hilly terrain, dense forests and harsh climate. Rajasthan has water shortage and its hot & dry climate accounts for low population density.

 Favourable factors for Transport network, industrialization, urbanization in Maharashtra, Goa, Delhi NCR etc. account for high population density. 


What is human development ? Analyse the four pillars of human development.

Human development is defined as the process of enlarging people's freedoms and opportunities and improving their well-being. Human development is about the real freedom which means that people must be healthy, be able to develop their talents, participate in society and be free to achieve their goals.The human development concept was developed by economist Mahbub ul Haq.

The four pillars of human development are:
  1. Equity: Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste.
  2. Sustainability: Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities. All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future. Misuse of any of these resources will lead to fewer opportunities for future generations. In other words sustainable human development refers to developing the current generation using all the available resourses efficiently so that there is no shortage of resourses for the future generation.
  3. Productivity: Productivity means human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work. Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people. Ultimately, it is people who are the real wealth of nations. Therefore, efforts to increase their knowledge, or provide better health facilities ultimately leads to better work efficiency.
  4. Empowerment: Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and people-oriented policies are required to empower people. The empowerment of socially and economically disadvantaged groups is of special importance.