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Molecular Basis of Inheritance

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Biology

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CBSE Gujarat Board Haryana Board

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Class 10 Class 12

In which mode of inheritance do you expect more maternal influence among the off spring?

  • Autosomal

  • Cytoplasmic

  • Y-linked

  • X-linked


B.

Cytoplasmic

The more maternal influence can be expected in the cytoplasmic inheritance (i.e. the inheritance of genes contained in the cytoplasm of a cell, rather than the nucleus. The reason is that the female reproductive cell or the egg has a large amount of cytoplasm containing many such organelles which contain their own genes and can reproduce independently (e.g., mitochondria and chloroplast) and which are consequently incorporated into the cytoplasm of all the cells of the embryo. The male reproductive cells (sperm or pollen) consist almost solely of a nucleus. Cytoplasmic organelles are thus, not inherited from the male parent.
This is why, the cytoplasmic inheritance is also called maternal inheritance.
Genes located on Y-chromosome are called Y-genes and their inheritance is called Y-linked inheritance. This carries the paternal influences.
A gene located in the X-chromosomes is said to be X-linked and its inheritance is called X-linked inheritance. In this, a male transmits his X-chromosome only to his daughters while a female transmits one of her X-chromosomes to the offspring of both sexes.

The more maternal influence can be expected in the cytoplasmic inheritance (i.e. the inheritance of genes contained in the cytoplasm of a cell, rather than the nucleus. The reason is that the female reproductive cell or the egg has a large amount of cytoplasm containing many such organelles which contain their own genes and can reproduce independently (e.g., mitochondria and chloroplast) and which are consequently incorporated into the cytoplasm of all the cells of the embryo. The male reproductive cells (sperm or pollen) consist almost solely of a nucleus. Cytoplasmic organelles are thus, not inherited from the male parent.
This is why, the cytoplasmic inheritance is also called maternal inheritance.
Genes located on Y-chromosome are called Y-genes and their inheritance is called Y-linked inheritance. This carries the paternal influences.
A gene located in the X-chromosomes is said to be X-linked and its inheritance is called X-linked inheritance. In this, a male transmits his X-chromosome only to his daughters while a female transmits one of her X-chromosomes to the offspring of both sexes.

400 Views

Name the genetic material for majority of organisms.

DNA (Deoxyribose nucleic acid)
965 Views

Comment two chains of DNA have antiparallel polarity.

The Two chain of DNA are antiparallel that is
if one chain has 5’ x 3’ polarity the other chain has 3’ x 5’ polarity.
658 Views

List the function of RNA.

Functions of RNA
RNA acts as genetic material in viruses
It also functions as an adapter and messenger 
It also acts as a catalytic molecule and catalyses various biochemical reactions.
721 Views

List the number of base pairs in :

(i) lambda bacteriophage

(ii) E.coli and

(iii) haploid content of human DNA.


(i) 48502 bp
(ii) 4.6 x 106 bp and
(iii) 3.3 x 109 bp.
757 Views

How many nucleotides are present in a bacteriophage ϕ x 174.

5386
805 Views