ï»¿ Define the term “osmotic pressure”. Describe how the molecular mass of a substance can be determined on the basis of osmotic pressure measurement. from Chemistry Solutions Class 12 Nagaland Board

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Class 10 Class 12
Define the term “osmotic pressure”. Describe how the molecular mass of a substance can be determined on the basis of osmotic pressure measurement.

Osmotic pressure: Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure that should be applied to the more concentrated solution to prevent osmosis.

osmotic pressure is proportional to the molarity, C of the solution at a given temperature T.

Thus: Π = C R T

Here Π is the osmotic pressure and R is the gas constant.
Determination of osmotic pressure: Barkley and Hartley’s method: The apparatus consists of a porous pot containing copper ferrocyanide deposited in its wall (acts as semipermeable membrane) and fitted into a bronze cylinder to which is fitted a piston and a pressure gauge (to read the applied pressure).

The pot is fitted with a capillary indicator on left and water reservoir on right. Pot is filled with water while the cylinder is filled with a solution whose osmotic pressure is to be measured. Water tends to pass into the solution through the semipermeable membrane with the result that the water level in the indicator falls down. External pressure is now applied with piston so as to maintain a constant level in the indicator. This external pressure is osmotic pressure.
If the membrane used was a slightly, leaky, then the measured valued of osmotic pressure will not be definite.

Fig. Barkley and Hartley’s apparatus.

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Calculate (a) molality (b) molarity and (c) mole fraction of KI if the density of 20% (mass/mass) aqueous KI is 1.202 g mL-1.

(a) 20% (mass/mass) means that 20 g of KI is present in 80 g of water.

Therefore, Moles of KI in solution

moles of KI = 20/166 =0.12mol
moles of water =80/18 =4.44mol
therefore, mole fraction of KI

=

1010 Views

Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride.

Let the total mass of the solution be 100g and mass of benzene be 30 g
therefore mass of tetrachloride= (100-30)g = 70g
Molar mass of benzene,

897 Views

Calculate the mass of urea (NH2CONH2) required in making 2.5 kg 0.25 of molal aqueous solution.

Solution:

Molality (m) is defined as the number of moles of the solute per kilogram (kg) of the solvent and is expressed as:

Mol. mass of urea ${\mathrm{NH}}_{2}{\mathrm{CONH}}_{2}$
= 14 + 2 + 12 + 16 + 14 + 2
=

Molality (m) =

or Moles of solute
= 0.25 x 0.25 =  0.625

Mass of urea
= Moles of solute x Molar mass

= 0.625 x 60 = 37.5 g

1475 Views

Calculate the mass percentage of benzene (C6H6) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) if 22 g of benzene is dissolved in 122 g of carbon tetrachloride.

Mass % of benzene

Mass% of carbon tetrachloride = 100 - 15.28
= 84.72%
1703 Views

Calculate the molarity of each of the following solution (a) 30 g of Co(NO3)2.6H2O in 4.3 L solution (b) 30 mL of 0.5 MH2SO4 diluted to 500 mL.

solution;

Molarity (M) is defined as number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre (or one cubic decimetre) of solution.

(a) Mol. mass of

Moles of $\mathrm{Co}\left(\mathrm{NO}{\right)}_{3}.6{\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$

Volume of solution = 4.3 L
Molarity,

(b) Number of moles present in 1000 ml of 0.5M H2SO4= 0.5 mol
therefore number of moles present in 30ml of 0.5M H2SO4=$\frac{0.5×30}{1000}$mol =0.015mol
therefore molarity =0.015/0.5L

thus molarity is 0.03M

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