The solutions which obey Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentration are known as ideal solutions. The ideal solutions have two other important properties. The enthalpy of mixing of the pure components to form the solution is zero and the volume of mixing is
also zero, i.e.,
ΔmixH = 0, ΔmixV = 0
ideal behaviour of the solutions can be explained by considering two components A and
B. In pure components, the intermolecular attractive interactions will be of types A-A and B-B, whereas in the binary solutions in addition
to these two interactions, A-B type of interactions will also be present.
If the intermolecular attractive forces between the A-A and B-B are nearly equal to those between A-B, this leads to the formation of ideal
solution. example are Solution of n-hexane and n-heptane, bromoethane and chloroethane, benzene and toluene, etc
When a solution does not obey Raoult’s law over the entire range of concentration, then it is called non-ideal solution.
example Mixtures of ethanol and acetone.
Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride.
Let the total mass of the solution be 100g and mass of benzene be 30 g
therefore mass of tetrachloride= (100-30)g = 70g
Molar mass of benzene,
Molarity (M) is defined as number of moles of solute dissolved in one litre (or one cubic decimetre) of solution.
(a) Mol. mass of
Volume of solution = 4.3 L
(b) Number of moles present in 1000 ml of 0.5M H2SO4= 0.5 mol
therefore number of moles present in 30ml of 0.5M H2SO4=mol =0.015mol
therefore molarity =0.015/0.5L
thus molarity is 0.03M
Calculate (a) molality (b) molarity and (c) mole fraction of KI if the density of 20% (mass/mass) aqueous KI is 1.202 g mL-1.
Molality (m) is defined as the number of moles of the solute per kilogram (kg) of the solvent and is expressed as: