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 Multiple Choice QuestionsMultiple Choice Questions

1.

A pregnant female delivers a baby, who suffer from stunted growth, mental retardation low intelligence quotient and abnormal skin. This is the result of 

  • deficiency of iodine in diet

  • low secretion of growth hormone

  • cancer of the thyroid glad

  • over secretion of pars distalis


A.

deficiency of iodine in diet

Hypothyroidism during pregnancy causes defective development and maturation of the growing foetus leading to stunted growth. Low secretion of GH results in stunted growth. Low secretion of GH result in stunted growth resulting in pituitary dwarfism. Paras distalis or anterior pituitary producers Growth hormone. prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH), Luteinising Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH).

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2.

Which one of the following hormones though synthesised elsewhere, is stored and released by the master gland?

  • Antidiuretic hormone

  • Luteinizing hormone

  • Prolactin

  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone


A.

Antidiuretic hormone

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or vasopressin is a peptide hormone synthesised in the hypothalamus, but stored and released from the posterior pituitary lobe. 

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3.

Which one of the following pairs of hormones are the examples of those that can easily pass through the cell membrane of the target cell and bind to a receptor inside it(mostly the nucleus)

  • Insulin and glucagon

  • Thyroxin and insulin

  • Somartostatin and oxytocin

  • Cortisol and testosterone


D.

Cortisol and testosterone

Cortisol and testosterone are lipid soluble hormones, which can directly pass through the cell membrane of the target cell and bind with interacellular receptors. 

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4.

Which one of the following hormones is not involved in sugar metabolism?

  • Cortisone

  • Aldosterone

  • Insulin

  • Glucagon


B.

Aldosterone

Aldosterone is not involved in sugar metabolism. It is a steroid hormone (mineralocorticoid) produced by the outer section(zona glomerulosa) of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland. It plays a central role in the adrenal gland. It plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure mainly by acting on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron, increasing reabsorption of ions and water in the kidney, to cause the conservation of sodium, secretion of potassium, increase in water retention and decrease in blood pressure and blood volume. 

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5.

Which of the following statement is correct in relation to the endocrine system?

  • Adenohypophysis is under the direct neural regulation of the hypothalamus.

  • Organs in the body like gastrointestinal tract, heart, kidney and live

  • Non-nutrient chemicals produced by the body in trace amount that acts as intercellular messengers are known as hormones.

  • Releasing and inhibitory hormones are produced by the pituitary gland.


C.

Non-nutrient chemicals produced by the body in trace amount that acts as intercellular messengers are known as hormones.

Hormones are non-nutrient chemicals, which act as intracellular messengers and are produced in trace amounts. Endocrine cells are present in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract, e.g., gastrin, secretin, GIP. Atrial wall of our heart secretes a peptide hormone called ANF (Atrial Natriuretic Factor), RH/ IH are produced by the hypothalamus. Adenohypophysis is not directly under neural control, it is under the control of hypothalamic hormones, brought by portal system.

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6.

Identify the hormone with its correct matching of source and function.

  • Oxytocin - posterior pituitary, growth and maintenance of mammary glands.

  • Melatonin - pineal gland, regulates the normal rhythm of sleep-wake cycle

  • Progesterone - corpus luteum, stimulation of growth and activities of female secondary sex organs

  • Atrial natriuretic factor - ventricular wall increases the blood pressure


B.

Melatonin - pineal gland, regulates the normal rhythm of sleep-wake cycle

Melatonin is a hormone present in animals, plants and microbes. In animals melatonin allowing the regulation of the circadian rhythms. Oxytocin is a neurohypophysial hormone which stimulates the muscle contraction (smooth muscle) in the wall uterus during childbirth. Progesterone is a female hormone produced by the ovaries during the release of a mature egg from an overly during ovulation.

ANF stimulates the secretion of Na and H2O by the kidneys and helps in regulating blood pressure.

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7.

What is correct to say about the hormone action in humans?

  • Glucagon is secreted by straight beta-cells of Islets of Langerhans and stimulates glycogenolysis

  • Secretion of thymosine is stimulated with ageing

  • In females, FSH first binds with specific receptors on ovarian cell membrane

  • FSH stimulates the secretion of oestrogen and progesterone


C.

In females, FSH first binds with specific receptors on ovarian cell membrane

FSH hormone is one of the gonadotropins secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary. It is a proteinaceous hormone, so binds with extra cellular or membrane bound receptors. 

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8.

A person entering an empty room suddenly finds a snake right in front on opening the door. Which one of the following is likely to happen in his neurohormonal control system?

  • Sympathetic nervous system is activated releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medulla

  • Neurotransmitters diffuse rapidly across the cleft and transmit a nerve impulse

  • Hypothalamus activates the parasympathetic division of brain

  • Sympathetic nervous system is activated releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal cortex


A.

Sympathetic nervous system is activated releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medulla

Epinephrine and nor-epinephrine are secreted by adrenal medulla (under the control of sympathetic nervous system) in response to stress of any kind or during the emergency situations. These are also called emergency hormones or hormones of flight, fight and fright (triple F hormone).

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9.

Which of the following pairs of hormones are not antagonistic (having opposite effects) to each other?

  • Insulin Glucagon
  • Aldosterone Atrial Natriuretic Factor
  • Relaxin Inhibin
  • Parathormone Calcitonin

C.

Relaxin Inhibin

Relaxin relaxes pubic symphysis during parturition while inhibin decreases the secretion of FSH from anterior pituitary

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10.

Fight or flight reactions cause activation of 

  • the parathyroid glands, leading to increased metabolic rate

  • the kidney, leading to suppression of reninangiotensin - aldosterone pathway 

  • the adrenal medulla, leading to increased secretion epinephrine and norepinephrine

  • the pancreas leading to a reduction in the blood sugar levels


C.

the adrenal medulla, leading to increased secretion epinephrine and norepinephrine

Fight or flight reaction is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to an emergency. Emergency hormone are secreted by adrenal medulla of adrenal gland secretes adrenaline (epinephrine) and nor alternative (norepinephrine) hormones which stimulate sweating, heart beat and breathing rate. These also cause dilation of coronary artery ( for increasing inspiratory volume)and pupil (for better vision)

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